World TB Day

Date: March 24, 2015

MDR-tb Tuberculosis in India DOTS World TB Day

24th March: World Tuberculosis Day

The Tuberculosis Day is celebrated every year at international level on 24th of March. It is celebrated to raise the awareness about the epidemic disease of tuberculosis as well as get their efforts in order to totally eradicate this disease. As around 1.7 million of the people are dying of this disease every year. The theme of the World TB Day  2015 would be “Reach, Treat, Cure Everyone”.

World TB Day is celebrated every year by the health organizations, NGOs, government and non government organizations including other health agencies to raise the awareness among common public all across the world about the epidemic disease, tuberculosis by organizing the variety of campaign related activities such as debates on TB prevention and cure.

Tuberculosis- Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by a Bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis.It is commonly known as TB. It can spread through the lymph nodes and bloodstream to any organ in body. It is commonly found in the lungs. Most people who are exposed to TB never develop symptoms because the bacteria can live in an inactive form in the body.As the bacteria that cause tuberculosis are transmitted through the air, the disease can be contagious.

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Multi Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB)- The bacteria that cause tuberculosis (TB) can develop resistance to the antimicrobial drugs used to cure the disease. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is TB that does not respond to at least isoniazid and rifampicin, the two most powerful anti-TB drugs.

Solutions to control drug-resistant TB are to:

    cure the TB patient the first time around;
    provide access to diagnosis;
    ensure adequate infection control in facilities where patients are treated;
    ensure the appropriate use of recommended second-line drugs.

 

Tuberculosis in India- Though India is the second-most populous country in the world one fourth of the global incident TB cases occur in India annually. In India today, two deaths occur every three minutes from tuberculosis (TB).

The WHO-recommended Directly Observed Treatment, Short Course (DOTS) strategy was launched formally as Revised National TB Control programme in India in 1997 after pilot testing from 1993-1996. Since then DOTS has been widely advocated and successfully applied. DOTS is the most effective strategy available for controlling TB. The DOTS programme in India  was launched under the Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP) as a pilot basis since October 1993.

The five key components of DOTS are-

      Political commitment to control TB;
     Case detection by sputum smear microscopy examination among symptomatic patients;
     Patients are given anti- TB drugs under the direct observation of the health care provider/community DOT provider;
     Regular, uninterrupted supply of anti-TB drugs; and
     Systematic recording and reporting system that allows assessment of treatment results of each and every patient and of whole TB control programme.

 

             Additional Information

TB and HIV 

Tuberculosis and HIV duo forms the deadly synergy; the patients with these diseases more often will have unfavourable outcomes. HIV infection increases the risk of progression of latent TB infection to active TB disease thus increasing risk of death if not timely treated for both TB and HIV. Correspondingly, TB is the most common opportunistic infection and cause of mortality among people living with HIV (PLHIV), difficult to diagnose and treat owing to challenges related to co-morbidity, pill burden, co-toxicity and drug interactions.
By numbers India ranks 2nd in the world and accounts for about 10% of the global burden of HIV-associated TB.