Major Biomes : Meaning, Nature and Type

Date: February 06, 2016

Taiga tundra desert grass lands

The regional biotic units, the biomes are easily recognised by the life for of the climax vegetation. But the biome includes besides the climax community, all the associated developing and modified communities occurring within the same climatic region. For instances, a forest biome may include young successional forests and open grass dominated tracts located within the large expanse of mature forest, grasslands/savanna, and desert biomes are described:

  1. Forest Biomes:

The characteristic vegetation of forest biomes is dominated by densely growing trees having a closed or nearby so canopy cover. Depending upon the climate type, a wide variety of forest types occur in world. Forest biomes are found in colder temperature regions differ from the forests in tropical regions in terms of structure, productivity and nutrient cycle.

The major forest biomes of India are:

  1. Tropical rain forest
  2. Tropical deciduous forest biomes
  3. Temperate broad-leaf forest biomes
  4. Coniferous forest biomes


  1. Grassland and savanna biomes:

Grassland biomes have treeless herbaceous plant cover, dominated by a wide variety of grass species. Associated with grasses, are several herbaceous species. The rainfall in the grassland biome is too less to support a forest biome and much higher than the rainfall in the desserts. This implies that the primary productivity in grasslands is directly related to the amount of rainfall.

Savanna implies a well developed grass cover interspersed with small grasses and scattered trees. Savanna is actually a grassland biome.

  1. Desert biomes:

In desert biomes, evaporation always exceeds the amount of water gained by soil. Warm or hot days and cool nights are the characteristics of the desert biomes. The biomass and overall productivity of the desert biomes are very low.