Meaning & definition of National Park,Biosphere Reserve and Sanctuary

Date: November 23, 2015

fauna flora geological formations

National Park'

The term ‘National Park' should denote an area:

• which is, set aside for the protection and conservation of outstanding natural fauna, flora, geological formations and natural scenic;

• in which hunting, killing or capturing of fauna, or deprivation of any wild animal of its habitat, or destruction and collection of flora, and weapons are all prohibited except for the improvement and a better management of wildlife therein, and on condition that these issues are handled by, or are under the control of, the park authorities;

• where also, grazing [of any live-stock] shall not be permitted.

No alteration of the boundaries of a National Park shall be made except on the resolution passed by the legislature of the State (Wildlife Protection Society of India, 2003., Thane Riney, 1982).

Declaration of National Parks

Whenever it appears to the State Government that an area, whether within a Sanctuary or not, is, by reason of its ecological, faunal, floral, geomorphological or zoological assosiation or importance, needed to be constituted as a National Park for the purpose of protecting, propagating or developing wild life therein or its environment, it may, by notification, declare its intention to constitute that area as a National Park. (Sub section (1) of section 35).

‘Sanctuary'

The term ‘Sanctuary' should denote an area:

• which is, set aside for the conservation, protection and management of wildlife and its habitat;

• within which, destruction or damage, exploitation, weapons, hunting and grazing, are all prohibited except by, or under the direction or control of, the reserve authorities;

• where human settlement and other human activities are restricted and prohibited.

No alteration of the boundaries of a sanctuary shall be made except on a resolution passed by the Legislature of the State (Wildlife Protection Society of India, 2003., Thane Riney, 1982).

Declaration of Sanctuary

The State Government may, by notification, declare its intention under sub-section (1) of section 18 to constitute any area other than an area comprised within any reserve forest or the territorial waters as a sanctuary if it considers that such area is of adequate ecological, faunal, floral, geomorphiological, natural or zoological significance, for the purpose of protecting, propagating or developing wild life or its environment.

[Provided further that limits of the area of territorial waters to be included in the sanctuary shall be determined in consultation with the Chief Naval Hydrographer of the Central Government.] (Section 26-A, Wildlife Protection Society of India, 2003).

‘Biosphere Reserve'


The term ‘Biosphere Reserve' should denote an area:

• which is, set aside for the conservation of the resources of the biosphere and for the improvement of the relationship between man and the environment;

• which is, to serve as sites for long term scientific research as well as education all over the world.

The programme of Biosphere Reserve was initiated under the 'Man & Biosphere' (MAB) programme by UNESCO in 1971. Biosphere Reserves are areas of terrestrial and coastal ecosystems promoting solutions to reconcile the conservation of biodiversity with its sustainable use. They are internationally recognized, nominated by National Governments and remain under sovereign jurisdiction of the states where they are located

Biosphere Reserve Objectives

Each Biosphere Reserve is intended to fulfill three basic functions, which are complementary and mutually reinforcing:

• A conservation function - to contribute to the conservation of landscapes, ecosystems, species and genetic variation;

• A development function - to foster economic and human development which is socio-culturally and ecologically sustainable;

• A logistic function - to provide support for research, monitoring, education and information exchange related to local, national and global issues of conservation and development (UNESCO, 2005).


;