India-2015; Chapter -5 : Culture and Tourism

Date: February 18, 2015

Lalit Kala Akademi Sangeet Natak Akademy Sahitya akademy NSD

Culture and Tourism

Culture plays an important role in the development agenda of any nation.Ministry of Culture preserves and conserves ancient cultural heritage and promotes art and culture, both tangible and intangible.

Intangibale Cultural Heritage-

A- Lalit Kala Akademi- to promote and propogate understanding of Indian art both within and outside the country, the GoI estb. Lalit Kala akademy (National academy of Arts) at New Delhi on 5th August 1954.

It have regional centres at lucknow,kolkata,Channai,Garhi (Naw Delhi),Shimla and Bhubneshwar.

It publishes Lalit Kala Contemporary (English),Lalit Kala Ancient (English),and Samkaleen Kala (Hindi).

B-Sangeet Natak Akademy- Sangeet Natak Akademi, India’s National Academy of Music, Dance and Drama, is a pioneer in creation of modern India that led politically to India’s freedom in 1947. The ephemeral quality of the arts, and the need for their preservation led to the adapting of a democratic system in which the common man had the opportunity to learn, practice and propagate the art.


In 1945. Asiatic Society of Bengal submitted a proposal for the creation of a National Cultural Trust consisting of three academies – an Academy of Dance, Drama and Music, an Academy of Letters and an Academy of Art and Architecture.

The Akademi has worked towards building up a unified structure of support for the practice of music, dance and drama in India encompassing traditional and modern forms, and  urban as well as rural environments. The festivals of music, dance and drama presented or promoted by the Adademi are held all over India. The great masters of the performing arts have been elected as Fellows of the Akademi. The Sangeet Natak Akademi Awards conferred annually on eminent artists and scholars are considered the most coveted honours in the field of performing arts.

The Akademi’s Gallery of Musical Instruments has more than 600 instruments of prominence and has been the source of published documentation over the years.


MUSIC – Two main schools of classical music – Hindustani and Carnatic continue to survive through oral tradition being passed on by teachers to disciples. This has led to the existence of family traditions called gharanas and sampradayas.

DANCE  - Dance in India has an unbroken tradition of over 2,000 years. Its themes are derived from mythology, legends and classical literature, two main divisions being classical and folk. Classical dance forms are based on ancient dance discipline and have rigid rules of presentation. Important among them are Bharata Natyam, Kathakali, Manipuri, Kuchipudi and Odissi. Bharata Natyam, though it derives its roots from Tamil Nadu, has developed into an all India form. Kathakali is a dance form of Kerala. Khathak is a classical dance form revitalized as a result of Mughal influence on Indian cultural. Manipur has contributed to a delicate, lyrical style of dance called, Manipuri, while Kuchipudi is a dance form owing its origin to Andhra Pradesh. Odissi from Odisha, once practiced as a temple dance, is today widely exhibited by artistes across the country. Each region limits ethnic folk/tribal dances.

SAHITYA ADADEMI – Sahitya Akademi is the Indian National Academy of Letters, to promote Indian literature through publications, translations, seminars, workshops, cultural, exchange programmes and literary meets organized all over the country. The Akademi was founded in March 1954 as an autonomous body fully funded by the Department of Culture. It was registered as a Society in 1956 under the Societies Registration Act, 1860. The Akademik has recognized 24 languages.

The three fellowships by Sahitya Akademi are:-

  1. Sahitya Akademi Honorary Fellowship
  2. Anand Fellowship
  3. Premchand Fellowship

It has three journals, Indian Literature (bi-monthly in English), Samkaleena Bharatiya (bi-monthly in Hindi) and Samskrita Pratibha (half-yearly in Sanskrit). Every year the Akademi publishes 250-300 books on an average. It has certain special projects like the Ancient Indian Literature, Medieval Indian Literature and Modern Indian Literature together constituting ten volumes of the best of Indian writing over five millennia. It has also launched a new project Encyclopedia of Indian Poetics.


The National School of Drama (NSD) – one of the foremost theatre institutions in the world and the only one of its kind in India was set up by Sangeet Natak Akademi in 1959. Later in 1975, it became an autonomous organization, totally financed by Development of Culture. The objective of NSD is to train students in all aspects of theatre, including theatre  history, production scene design, costume design, lighting, make-up, etc. The training course are screened years durations. The eligible applicants for admission to the course are screened through two stages. The Diploma of NSD is recognized by the Association of Indian Universities as equivalent to M.A. Degree for appointment as teachers in colleges / universities and for purposes of registration for Ph.D.


The Indira Gandhi National centre for Arts (IGNCA) is an autonomous centre under the Ministry of Culture, Government of India.

The IGNCA A’s view of the arts encompasses wide areas such as creative and critical literature, written and Oral; the visual arts, architecture, sculpture, painting, graphics, photography and film. The Centre aims at exploring, studying and reviving the dialogue between India and her neighbours, in areas pertaining to the arts, and between communities in India and the world.


The Centre for Cultural Resources and Training (CCRT) is one of the premier institutions working in the field of linking education with culture. The Centre was set up in May 1979 as an autonomus organization by the Government of India. With headquarters in New Delhi, it has three regional centres at Udaipur, Hyderabad and Guwahati.


Zonal Cultural Centres aim to arouse awareness of the local cultures and to show how these merge into zonal  identities and eventually into the rich diversity of Indias’s composite culture. These Centres have already established themselves as a premier agency in the field of promotion, preservation and dissemination of culture in the entire country. They promote performing arts by significant contribution in literary and visual arts.


The National Mission on Monuments and Antiquities was launched on 19th March, 2007 with a budgetary outlay of Rs 90 crore. It prepares a National Register for Built Heritage, Sites and Antiques and setting up of a State level database on built Heritage, Sites and Antiquarian wealth for information and dissemination to planners, researchers etc, and better management of such cultural resources. The time frame prescribed for the NMMA to accomplish its mandate was five years.


It was launched by the Government in 2003 with the Indira Gandhi National Centre for Arts (IGNCA) as the nodal agency to reclaim India’s inheritance of knowledge contained in the vast treasure of manuscripts. There are 46 Manuscripts Resource Centres, 33 Manuscripts Conservation Centres, 42 Manuscripts Partner Centres and 300 Manuscripts Conservation Partner Centres


The National Museum, functions, as a subordinate office under the Ministry of Culture since 1960, houses over 2.6 lakh art objects dating from prehistoric era onwards.


The National Gallery of Modern Art (NGMA), New Delhi was founded in 1954 to promote and develop contemporary Indian artists.


The Anthropological Survey of India is a premier research organization under the Ministry of Culture. It has completed 60 years of its existence and has carried out anthropological researches in the area of bio-cultural aspects of Indian population in general and one those who are referred to as the "Weakest of the Week" in particular.


The National Archives of India (NAI), New Delhi known until independence as Imperial Record Department, was originally established in Kolkata on 11 march, 1891. It is the official custodian of all non-current record of permanent value to the Government of India and its predecessor bodies. It has a Regional Office at Bhopal and three Record Centres at Bhubaneswar, Jaipur and Puducherry.  



The National Library, Kolkata was established in 1948 with the passing of the Imperial Library (Change of Name) Act, 1948. It enjoys the status of an institution of national importance, its functions are : (i) Acquisition and conservation of all significant printed material (to the exclusion only of ephemera) as well as of manuscripts of national importance; (ii) Collections of printed material concerning the country, no matter where this is published; (iii) Rendering of bibliographical and documentary services of current and retrospective material, both general and specialized. (This implies the responsibility to produce current national bibliographies and retrospective bibliographies on various aspects of the country); (iv) Acting as referral centre, surveying full and accurate knowledge of all sources of bibliographical information and participation in international bibliographical activities.

Visa – on – Arrival (VoA)

In an effort to promote inbound tourism in the country, the government announced Tourist Visa-on-Arrival in 2010. At present, it provides Tourist Visa on Arrival facility (TVoA) to the nationals of 12 countries namely Finland, Japan, Luxembourg, New Zealand, Singapore, Cambodia, Indonesia, Vietnam, Philippines, Laos, Myanmar and South Korea. This facility was initially available at the international airports of Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, and Kolkata. However, with effect from 15 August, 2013 this facility has been extended through Hyderabad, Bengaluru, Kochi and Thiruvananthapuram. During the period January to December 2013, a total number of 20,294 Visa on Arrivals (VoAs) were issued as compared to 16,084, VoAs  during the corresponding period of 2012 registering a growth of 26.2%. The number of VoAs issued under the Scheme during January to December 2013 was Japan (6,448), New Zealand (3,968), the Philippines (2,967), Indonesia (2,758), Singapore (2,486), Finland (1,030), Vietnam (205), Myanmar (148), Luxembourg (145), Cambodia (120) and Laos (19).

During the period January to December 2013, the highest number of VoAs were issued in New Delhi airport (11,046) followed by Mumbai (4,206), Chennai (2,815), Kolkata (1,351), Bengaluru (380), Kochi (229), Hyderabad (165) and Trivandrum (102).

Niche Tourism Products

The Ministry of Tourism has taken the initiative of identifying, diversifying, developing and promoting niche products of the tourism industry. This is done in order to overcome the aspect of ‘seasonality’ and to promote India as a 365 days destination, attract tourists with specific interest, and to ensure repeat visits for the unique products in which India has a comparative advantage.

Incredible India – Bed & Breakfast/Homestay Scheme

The scheme offers foreign and domestic tourists an opportunity to stay with an Indian family and enjoy the warm hospitality and a taste of Indian culture and cuisine in a clean and affordable place. Which a view to encourage the growth of such establishments and also to simplify the procedure of approvals, the Ministry of Tourism has recently reviewed the scheme and has simplified the guidelines by amending certain norms.