India 2015: Education

Date: March 07, 2015

right to education Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan CENTRAL BOARD OF SECONDARY EDUCATION


Education is not only an instrument of enhancing efficiency but also an efficient tool for augmenting and widening democratic participation and upgrading the overall quality of individual and society. India has a vast population and to capture the potential demographic dividend, to remove the acute regional, social and gender imbalances, the Government is committed to make concerted efforts for improving the quality of education as mere quantitative expansion will not deliver the desired results in view of last changing domestic and global scenario.

The Ministry of Human Resource Development has two Departments i.e. Department of School Education & Literacy and the Department of Higher Education.


Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE)  


Article 21-A of the Constitution of India and its consequent legislation, the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009 became operative in the country on 1st April 2010. Every child has a right to elementary education of satisfactory and equitable quality in a formal school which satisfies certain essential norms and standards specified in the RTE Act.

Mid-Day Meal Programme

With a view to enhance enrolment, retention and attendance and simultaneously to improve the national status of children, a Centrally Sponsored Scheme “National Programme of Nutritional Support to Primary Education (NP-NSPE)” was launched on 15th August, 1995. The Scheme was extended during 2008-09 to cover children of upper primary classes and the name of the Scheme was changed as ‘National Programme of Mid-Day Meal in Schools’. At present all the primary and upper primary Government, Government – aided Local Body Schools, National Child Labour Projects (NCLP) Schools, the centres run under Education Guarantee Scheme (EGS) / Alternative & Innovative Education (AIE), Madarsas and Maqtabs supported under-SSA are covered under Mid-Day Meal Scheme. The scheme is being revised from time to time in its content and coverage. The Mid Day Meal Scheme covered 10.68 crore elementary class children in 12.12 lakh schools in the country.

The objectives of the Mid-Day Meal Scheme are to address two of the pressing problems for majority of children in India, viz. hunger and education by:

  • Improving the nutritional status of children in classes I-VIII in Government, Local Body and Government aided schools, and EGS and AIE centres, NCLP schools and Madarsas and Maqtabs supported under SSA.
  • Encouraging poor children, belonging to disadvantaged sections, to attend school more regularly and help them concentrate on classroom activities.
  • Providing nutritional support of children of elementary stage in drought-affected areas during summer vacation.


Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA)

The scheme was launched in March, 2009 with the objective to enhance access to secondary education and improve its quality. The scheme envisage inter alia, to enhance the enrolment at secondary stage, by providing a secondary school within a reasonable distance of habitation, with an aim to ensure GER of 100 per cent by 2017 and universal retention by 2020.

Vocationalisation of Secondary and Higher Secondary Education   

The revised scheme of “Vocationalisation of Secondary and Higher Secondary Education” was approved by the Cabinet Committee on skill Development in February 2014. The main reason for revision is continuation of the scheme during the 12th Plan.

Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA)

At Secondary level RMSA is supporting open schooling system to enhance the access, equity quality and management, especially in deprived parts of the country and in areas with large underprivileged population and therefore it gives opportunity to move ahead towards equity and social justice.


The CBSE is a National Board of School Education established in 1929 under the aegis of Ministry of Human Resource Development. It is a self-financed autonomous organization with 13,898 affiliated schools in India and abroad which include KVs, Government, independent and JNV schools located in India and 24 other countries of the world.


Several legislative initiatives have been taken by the Ministry wherein reforms are undertaken by means of policy changes/executive order as well as legislative initiatives. Presently, following legislative proposals for reforms in Higher Education have been initiated which are at various stages of finalization/consideration:

  • Educational Tribunals Bill, 2010.
  • The Universities for Research and Innovation Bill, 2012.
  • The Foreign Educational Institutions (Regulation of Entry and Operations) Bill, 2010
  • Higher Education and Research Bill, 2011.
  • The National Accreditation Regulatory Authority for Higher Educational Institutions Bill, 2010.
  • Prohibition of Unfair practices in Technical Education Institutions, Medical Education Institutions and Universities Bill, 2010.
  • National Academic Depository Bill, 2011.
  • Amendment to the Architects Act, 1972.
  • National Institute of Technology (Amendment) Act, 2012.

Indian Institute of Information Technology (IIIT) Bill, 2013.