Climatic Regions (World wide)

Date: December 13, 2014

Climatic Regions

  1. Equatorial Climate Regions (Tropical Rain forests type climate) (Af climate)

 Regions – Amazon Basin in South America, Congo basin in Africa, Guinea Coast, Eastern Islands group, Philippines and East of Central America.

* 50-100 North and South of Equator                                  * High temperature throughout year, humid day

* ‘Inter Tropical Convergence Zone’ develops here which had cyclonic conditions linked

Rainfall – Heavy rainfall throughout year, average annual rainfall is 200 cm and in the Nigeria below the Cameron peak rainfall is 1000 cm annually.

Vegetation – Tropical Evergreen forests, broad leaves, Gutta-percha, rubber, ebony, bamboo Mahogany, Sandal, and Cinchona are important.

 

  1. Monsoon Climate (Am)

Location – India subcontinent, South East Asia, East African Coast Florida Coast and North Coast of Australia.

* High temperature throughout year and summer, winter season are here.

* 80% of rainfall occurs in June to September

Vegetation – Evergreen forests in the regions of 200 cm or above rainfall

* 100-200 cm rainfall zone had tropical deciduous forests (Saagaun, Saal, Mango, Sheesham, Mahua).

* 50-100 cm rainfall zone had grass and deciduous forests and dry parts had bushes.

 

  1. Savana Climate (Aw)

Location – Less rainfall compared to the equatorial region and due to the uneven distribution of rainfall there are large regions of grasslands. These are called Savana in Africa.

* This type of climate is also called ‘Sudan Type Climate’.

* This region lies from 50-100 North-South of equator to 150-200 North-South.

* In Africa this lies North-South of equatorial climate region, Venenzuela, Columbia, Guyana, South Central Brazil, Paraguay and North Australia are the major Savana Climate.

Temperature – High temperature throughout year and Annual temperature range is high (30-80 C).

* Due to the apparent movement of the Sun, ITCZ causes rainfall

* Average annual rainfall 100-150 cm.

* Thick grasses (Savana) and Deciduous forests are found.

 

  1. Tropical and Sub-Tropical Dry Desert Climate (BWn)

Location – 150-300 North-South of Equator. Thar desert, Sindh, South Baluchistan, Arab Peninsula, Africa (Sahara, Kalahari), North America West Desert Areas (California, Arizona), Atacama of South America and West Australia.

Temperature – Average temperature during summer is 300-350 C, in the noon it is 400-480 C.

* Annual and daily temperature range is high.               

* Rainfall less than 50 cm

* Most of part is lacking vegetation and only bushes are seen (Date, Palm, Babool and Naagfani).

 

  1. Mediterranean Climate (Cs)

* Most Permanent type of climate                                           * Receives maximum rainfall in winters

* Summers are hot and winters normal                    * They receive sunlight throughout year

Locations – Dordogne and Seine river valley in France, Countries around the Mediterranean Sea, South California, Central Chile, Cape town of South Africa and South Australia.

* Due to the apparent movement of Sun, these areas come in the Westerlies wind belt in the winters. So they receive cyclonic rainfall (35-75 mm).

* Winters 50-100 C , Summers 200-300 C

* Temperature in this climatic region is generally above the freezing point and very less goes below.

Important Trees – Oak, Wall nut, Chest nut, Cypress and Cedar

* Olive and Mulberry are found in abundance.

* These regions are quite popular for the fruit production like grapes, Orange, lemon, Anjeer etc.

 

  1. China type Climate (Humid Sub tropical Climate) (Ca)

Location – South East and South China, Po Basin, South East United States of America, South East Brazil, Uruguay, South East of South Africa, South East Australia.

China Type climate and Mediterranean type climate are found in same latitudes. But there are some differences :

  1. China Type Climate is found in the Eastern part and Mediterranean climate is found in the Western part of the Continent.
  2. China type Climate receives maximum rainfall in the summers while rainfall occurs throughout year. Mediterranean type of climate receives rainfall mainly in the winters.
  3. China type climate is also known as ‘Sub-Monsoon Climate’.

* Average Temperate in summers is 250-270 C                * Winter 60-100 C

* In China ‘Typhoon’, USA ‘Hurricane’, Australia ‘South Busters’ are the names of the tropical cyclones.

* 75-100 cm annual rainfall                                      * Pampas of Argentina and Uruguay comes in this climatic region.

  1. Western European Type Climate (Cb)

Location – This climatic region is found in 40-65 latitudes in both the hemispheres along with the Western Coast. Under this type of climate comes Western Europe, Western Norway, Denmark, North-West Germany, British Columbia in Canada, Washington in United States, Oregano, Chile, New Zealand and Tasmania.

* Average temperature during summers is 15-210C. In winters the temperature goes below 00C.

* Rainfall occurs throughout year and is quite enough.

  * Conical forests, Douglas, Fur, Spruce, Hemlock, Cedar are found in the North America while Oak, Linden, Elm are found in West Europe.

* There is snowfall in winters but for less period.

 

  1. St. Lawrence type Climate (Ob)

Location – This is Humid Continental Climate. This exists in the Northern hemisphere over 45-650 latitudes.

* Oceanic province of Canada (Ontario, Qubec), New England Region in the United States (Messachuatas, Conticut, Vermont, New Hampshire), Manchuria, Korea, Hokkaido (Japan) and the Southern part of the Argentina.

* The Average temperature in the Autumn is 21C while the winters are very harsh.

* Rainfall occurs throughout year and is maximum in the summer.

* Very heavy snowfall occurs

* Mixed forests of Deciduous and conical trees are found. Cheed, Spruce, Hemlock are the important trees. In Canada and United States these forests are the base of Paper pulp industries.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


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