Date: December 10, 2014
- Coal – The quality of coal depends upon the % of carbon in it. So on this basis, the coal are divided into 4 categories –
- Pete – Carbon is less than 40%. This resembles wood and is worst coal form.
- Lignite – 40-55% carbon 3. Bituminous – 55-80% carbon 4. Anthracite – 80-95% carbon
- The gasses present in the coal are burned in coal refineries and coke is obtained for Iron-Steel Industry.
- 98% of Nation’s coal reserve and 99% production is from Gondwana coal. This Gondwana coal is primarily Bituminous. Tertiary coal is found mainly in North-East states and Tamil Nadu.
- Coal Reserves – According to Zoological Survey of India, a total of 255.25 billion tonnes of coal is there. 29.7 billion coking coal is here. Actual approve reserves of Lignite is 91.63 billion tonnes which is in Neville, Tamil Nadu. 88% of coal reserves are in 5 states – 1. Jharkhand (29%) Orissa (24.29%) 3. Chhattisgarh-MP (24%) 4. West Bengal (11%). Raniganj Coal Reserve (West Bengal) is biggest coal area of India. Here lies 11% expected and 9% visible/proved coal reserves.
Jharkhand – Leading state in Coal mining. 22.4% of nations total coal is produced.
- Jharia (Dhanbhad) – The biggest coal producer of Jharkhand. 60% of carbon is there. Jharia coal is sent to Iron-Steel plants.
- Bokaro (Giridhih) – District and Karherbari coal region.
- Karanpura Coal region (Palamu, Hazaribagh district)
- West Bengal – 11% reserve and 6% production.
- Raniganj Coal regionis spread in Bardhman and Birbhum district. Here coking coal is reserve.
- Orissa – 24% reserve and 17% production. Talchar region in Brahmani river valley.
- Chhattisgarh – Sarguja and Korba coal region.
- Madhya Pradesh – Singrauli region (supplies coal to Obra Thermal Plant)
- Jammu & Kashmir – Riyassi region had Anthracite coal.
- Andhra Pradesh – Singrani coal region (Godavari valley)
- Tertiary Coal – Assam-Makum, Neharkattia, Doigrung, Nambor and Longoi region.
- Meghalaya – Belyang, Doigring, Vemong region.
- Arunachal Pradesh – Namchik-Namfuk, Abor, Miri, Dapla, Aka and Miao hills.
- Lignite Coal – Neyveli mines in Tamil Nadu. Used in Thermal power plant.
- India is 3rd in coal production.
- Consumption of Coal – Coal is important source of commercial energy. 60-65% consumption – Thermal Power Plant, 12% - Steel Industries.
- Coal is also used in cement and fertilizer industries.
- Trade – India exports coal to Europe, Japan and Middle East and now a day it is imported on large scale.
Major Problems in Coal Mining
- Low Quality – Most of the India coal is non-coking which is not good for steel industry.
- Uneven Distribution – Most of the mines are in East India. North, West and South India are poor in coal deposits. It costs in transportation and cause uneven Economic-Industrial growth.
- Old Mining Methods – This is mainly based on human labour which causes low per capita growth and increases cost of mining.
- Energy Crisis – This is major problem in Damodar Valley Corporation.
- Environment Pollution – Coal mining and use of coal cause pollution. Thermal plants release poisonous gas an in mining area dust cause health problems.
India produces 1% of Worlds raw oil which is only sufficient for 23% of local demand.
Production Sites – 1. Brahmaputra Valley 2. Gujarat Coast
- Western Coast offshore region 4. East Coast offshore region
- Brahmaputra Valley
- Dehing basin to East of Surma Valley (1300 km)
- Nova, Dirling and Budhi Dirling river valleys in Dibrugarh and Shivsagar district are major oil producing regions.
- Digboi Region (Dibrugarh District) – 80 wells are here. Digboi, Bappapang, Hassapang and Pantola are important centres. The crude oils is sent to Digboi refinery. The management is under OIL.
- Naharkatia Region- South West of Buddhi Dihing 60 wells gave oil and 4 Natural gas. 25lakh tonnes of annual production. The crude oil is sent to Nunmati and Baruni refineries.
- Moron Hugregion – Natural gas and oil reserves both are here. The crude oils is sent to Barauni, Rudrasagar and Lakwa are another oil regions. Badrpur, Masimpur and Pathoria are important area in Surma Valley.
- Gujarat Coast
- 2nd most oil producing region (18.16%)
- Bahruch district – Ankleshwar Oil region - Per Year 30 lakh tonnes Crude oil and 20 lakh m3 Abundance of Gasoline and Kerosene. Oil is sent to Koyali and Trombay refineries.
- Khambhat-Lunez Region (30 million tonnes reserve) – Per Year 15 lakh tonne oil and 8-10 lakh m3 Oil had high % of wax.
- Ahmedabad – Kalou Region – Crude oil is sent to Koyali refinery. Kalol, Saanand, Dholka, Mehsaana and Vachraaj are important regions of oil production.
- Western Offshore Region
- Bombay high – leading all site of country, 65.92% of total production of country, 330 million tonnes oil and 37,000 million gas reserves are here, spread in 2500 km area and had high % of petrol and kerosene.
- Bassein Region – South of Bombay high
- Aliabate – In Bay of Khambhat near Aliabate Island.
- Eastern Coastal Region
- It includes deltas of Kaveri, Krishna and Godavari rich in mineral oil and Natural gas.
- Krishna-Godavari offshore basin Ravaa regions will give 10-30 lakh tonnes oil per year.
- Amlapuram Basin could give 3600 barrels per day.
- 4 lakh tonnes crude oil is produced per year from Narimanam and Koiral Kaalapalli offshore. 5 lakh tonnes capacity of oil refinery is based in Chennai for crude oil from here. This is Pannaigudi.
- Rampur district (UP) Bilaspur Tehsil and Jwalamukhi region in Punjab had oil regions.
- In Rajasthan Bhagyam and Vijya region crude oil is found which could give 2000 barrel oil per day.
- Import – Mainly from Saudi Arab, Kuwait, Iraq, Iran and Bahrain.
- Export – Russia, Kazakhstan, Indonesia, Malaysia also export oil to India.
- Pipelines – These are good medium to transfer crude oil to oil refineries and petroleum products to consumer markets. This is for petroleum and LPG. Major Pipelines –
- Naherkatia–Nunmati–Barauni Pipeline 1152 km 2. Salaya-Koyali-Mathura Pipeline 1075 km
- Hajira-Vijaylur-Jagdishpur Pipeline 1750 km (HVJ) 4. Kandla-Bhatinda Pipeline 1331 km
- Major Oil Refineries – 1. Trombay (Maharashtra) Koyali (Gujarat) 3. Barauni (Bihar) 4. Mathura
- Jamnagar refinery had maximum capacity (330 lakh tonnes/per year) RPL.
- Natural Gas
- Mainly found above the crude oil or alone.
- Discovery and production is done by ONGC and Distribution is done by GAIL
- Bombay High had maximum reserve of 331 billion m3
- Assam 88 billion m3, Gujarat 16 billion m3
- Bombay-Bassein Region had maximum reserves
- Other Important Natural Gas Regions are – 1. Jagtia, Ghoga – Gujarat Naharkatia, Moram region – Assam
- Nepalter, Mang Madam, Avadi, Virugamppam – Tamil Nadu 4. Baranura, Athurnura – Tripura
- Badhmer, Charaswala – Rajasthan 6. Nau-Chik, Mia O Pung, Laptong Pung – Arunachal Pradesh
- Jawalamukhi, Kangda – Himachal Pradesh
- Firozpur (Punjab), Mednipur (West Bengal), Mausar Madarpur (Kashmir)
- In Krishna-Godawari Basin 38 TCF reserves are discovered.
- Maximum production is from Bombay High (72%), Gujarat (11.6%), Assam (6.66%)
- 39% Electricity generation, 26% Fertilizer Industry, 35% other (Industries, LPG) are the major consumer area of Natural Gas.
- Namrup (2 x 23 MW) – Anam & Dhruvarm (2 x 27 MW) – Gas based Thermal Plants
- Ankleshwar Gas is utilized by Gujarat Fertilizer Corporation and Gas of South Bassein goes to Thal Vashit (Maharashtra) and Hazira (Gujarat) fertilizer plants.
- So as to cop out with increasing demand there are plans to build pipelines from Iran, Myanmar and Central Asia to India to bring Natural Gas.
- Mainly Generated from four sources - 1. Coal (Thermal electricity) Water (Hydel Power)
- Nuclear Energy and 4. Natural Gas.
- 60% Thermal Power Plants, 22% Hydel Power and2.5% Nuclear Power Plants.
- NTPC (1975) develops coal based power plants.
- There is more increase in Thermal electricity than Hydel and Nuclear because Hydel and Nuclear power requires more investment, appropriate places and long building time than Thermal plants.
- Due to the improved living standards, urbanization, industrialization, transport development there is increase in the electricity demand. Due to the mismanagement State Electricity Board and their weak financial status had caused growing electricity crisis. Industries requires maximum electricity (38%), after that common house hold (24.3%), Agriculture (22%), Commercial (8.8%) and Railway (2.3%). Due to use of pumping set and machines in agriculture the demand for th electricity had increased. There is decline in Industrial and Railway demand.
- Maharashtra is leading in Electricity production.
- Electricity is the subject of state and the production and distribution is done by the State Electricity Board.
- National Power Training Institute (Faridabad) trains the Electricity board workers.
- Andhra Pradesh is leading in electricity production then is Karnataka and Maharashtra comes.
- Hydel power is more developed in the Southern part (South India).
Major Hydel Power projects –
- Andhra Pradesh – * Nagajunsagar 510 MW * Sileru 530 MW * Srisailam 440 MW
* Tungbhadra * Muchkund 115 MW
- Karnataka – Sharavathi 891 MW, Kali Nadi 910 MW, Jeg (Mahatma Gandhi) 120 MW
- Kerala-Idukki 390 MW, Sabarigiri 330 MW, Parambikullum 185 MW
- Tamil Nadu - Kunda 1-5 (540 MW) Mattoor 240 MW
- Gujarat – UKAI (Tapi) 300 MW Sardar Sarovar 1450 MW
- Madhya Pradesh – Narmada Sagar 1550 MW Gandhi Sagar (Chambal) 115 MW
- Maharashtra – Koyna 880 MW Tata 276 MW
- Kashmir – Lower Jhelum 905 MW Salal I (Chenab) 395 MW
- Himachal Pradesh - Nathpa Jakhri 1500 MW Bera Sidal 180 MW Raupur 912 MW
Luhri 700 MW Khabb 1020 Chamera 540 MW
- Punjab – Dehar (Vyas River) 990 MW Bhakhra Nangal 1140 MW Pong 360 MW
- Rajasthan – Rana Pratap Sagar (Chambal) 172 MW
- Uttar Pradesh – Rihand 300 MW Yamuna 1, 2, 3, 4 475 MW
Ram Ganga 198 MW Ganga Grid 265.8 MW
- Uttarakhand – Khatima 41.4 MW Tihri 2400 MW Devarsari 300 MW
- Bihar – Kosi Project 20 MW
- Jharkhand – Survarna Rekha 130 MW Maithan 60 MW Tillaiya 4 MW
- Orissa – Hirakund Dam 270 MW Bali Mela 360 MW
- Assam – Umiyam 54 MW
- Manipur – Loktuk 105 MW
- Arunachal Pradesh – Ranga River 270 MW
Thermal Power – Maharashtra is the leading state with 13% production than Gujarat (7.1%), West Bengal (5%). Himalayan states, Kerala and Goa are devoid of Thermal Power.
NTPC – This is ‘Navaratna’ Corporation whose target is 46000 MW in 2012.
NTPC – Thermal Electricity Centres –
- Singraulli (UP) - 2000 MW 2. Korba (Chattisgarh) - 2100 MW
- Ramagundam (Andhra Pradesh) – 2600 MW 4. Farakkha (West Bengal) – 1600 MW
- Vindhyanchal (MP) – 1260 MW 6. Rihand (UP) – 1500 MW
- Kahal Gaon (Bihar) - 840 MW 8. Talchar (Odissa) – 3000 MW
- Badarpur (Delhi) – 720 MW 10. Unchahar (UP) – 420 MW
Gas Based Plants
* Oraiyaa (UP) – 600 MW * Kavass (Gujarat) 600 MW * Anta (Rajasthan) 430 MW