Food Crops

Date: December 13, 2014

Food Crops

  1. Rice
  • Rice is a tropical crop. 240 C Average temperature, 150 cm annual rainfall, claye loam soil is most suitable.
  • Rice is Kharif/winter crop. It is sown from June to August and cut down in the months from November to January. This crop is also known as ‘Aman, Saali or Ahghony’. In Assam, Bengal, Orissa, Bihar and Tamil Nadu rice is grown in autumn and summer season.
  • Area and Production – Thanjavur is most important rice producing district.
  • West Bengal is at 1ST place in rice grown area and production.
  • Punjab (2nd), Andhra Pradesh (3rd) and UP (4th)
  • Trade – Most of the rice is consumed locally. ¼ rice comes in market. Some times rice is imported also. India export ‘Basmati’ Rice to Gulf countries.
  • 10% Rice goes to retail market and rest is taken by the government.
  1. Wheat
  • This is second most important crop in area and production wise.
  • India ranks 2nd in rice production.
  • Growing Condition – Grown in winters and is Rabi Crop. Requires the temperature 10-150 Most of the wheat grown in India is in alluvial soil (loam) in plains).
  • Triticum Aestirum (General wheat) is grown in Northern plains and Triticum Durum (Red colour, Makroni wheat) is grown in black soil regions of peninsula.
  • Area and Production – Wheat is 37% of total grain production and is 35% of all food grain produced.
  • Wheat region is spread from Sutlej-Ganga plain to Bhagalpur (Bihar) in a continuous belt. Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat Black soil region also covers a wheat belt.
  • Uttar Pradesh is 1st in Wheat production. Most of the wheat produced comes from Ganga-Yamuna region (Doab) and Ruhelkhand plain. Punjab is 2nd where per hectare production is highest. Haryana is at 3rd
  • Trade – 45% of wheat produced is consumed locally. 55% of wheat reaches market, half of which is buyed by Government to make Buffer Stock and Public Distribution system. Some wheat is exported to Russia and Bangladesh.
  1. Jowar
  • Rank third in area wise and production. This had good nutritional value and is cheap food for poor. It is also feed to the animal reared.
  • 27-320 C temperature, 30-65 cm rainfall and Black soil of peninsula is most appropriate. This is grown in both Rabi and Kharif.
  • Area and Production – Jowar is mainly Peninsular crop. Maharashtra is 1st in production. Half of the countries Jowar is produced here. Karnataka is 2nd and Madhya Pradesh is 3rd.
  • Trade – 10% reaches market and rest is locally consumed.
  • The agriculture area and production of Jowar had decreased. High yielding seeds is needed and efforts should be made to popular the jowar production in Dry land farming.
  1. Bajra
  • This is dry land crop. Constitute 10% of total grain production and is considered to be food for poor people.
  • 25-310C temperature, 40-50 cm annual rainfall. Black and sandy soil is most suitable.
  • Area and Production – Rajasthan stands first in area and production. Uttar Pradesh 2nd, Maharashtra 3rd. Most of the production is consumed locally and rest of it goes to international market as well.
  • The production is decreasing because of less per hectare production and price, so it needs to get popular in dry land farming.
  1. Maize
  • This is major food for North plain and hilly regions of North.
  • 21-270C temperature, 50-75 cm rainfall and is mainly Kharif crop.
  • Karnataka is chief produces and UP, Rajasthan are other important producing states.
  • 2 lakh tonnes comes in market, rest is locally consumed.
  1. Barley
  • Used in the Whisky and Beer production.
  • 10-180C temperature, 70-90 cm rainfall
  • Rajasthan is 1st in production and UP had maximum area in which Barley is grown.
  • This barley is used in Inter State Trade.
  1. Ragi
  • This is nutritional food for the people in South India. In Babarnama, it is mentioned that Ragi is used in Alcohol Drink Production.
  • This is Kharif crop. In South India, the crop is grown throughout year with the irrigation.
  • Karnataka is 1st and Uttarakhand 2nd. Karnataka and Tamil produce 3/4th of Ragi.
  1. Pulses
  • These includes many foodgrains. Pulses are important source of protein. These help in Nitrogen fixation and maintains the soil fertility. Gram, Tur, Moong, Peas are important pulses. Madhya Pradesh stood 1ST in production, UP 2nd, Maharashtra 3rd and Rajasthan 4th.
  • Main problem in Pulse agricultural production is lack of irrigation facility, use of less manure, insects, diseases and lack of good price. These problems should be overcome so as to facilitate the pulses production.
  1. Gram
  • This is used as food for human and animal fodder as well. This is important pulse.
  • 20-250 C temperature (little bit cool season). 35-50 cm annual rainfall. Khadar belt of alluvium of Gangetic plain is perfect.
  • Madhya Pradesh first, UP and Maharashtra are other important states.
  • 40% of the total production comes in the retail market.
  1. Tur
  • This is 2nd important pulse. The roots are long and is also grown like fence in sugarcane and cotton field.
  • 20-250 C temperature, 40-80 cm rainfall. This is grown in alluvium of Gangetic plain to Black soil regions of peninsular.
  • This is grown throughout year and is grown as mixed crop.
  • Maharashtra stood first in area and production. UP is 2nd, Karnataka and Madhya Pradesh are other states.
  • 20% of the production reaches the retail market.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


;