Indian Peninsular plateau

Date: December 10, 2014

Peninsular Plateau

  • Extended over 16 lakh km2
  • Aravali range marks the North-West end, Bundelkhand highland marks the North Boundary (including Kaimur and Rajmahal hills), in south; Southern Sahyadri marks the boundary and Eastern ghats forms the East boundary.
  • Peninsular plateau is divided into two parts by fault through which Narmada flows
  • North of Narmada, the plateau is known Central Highlands and its slope is towards North.
  • The Southern part is called Deccan plateau. Its slope is towards East. It comprises of East and West ghats, Satpuda range.

Divisions of Peninsular highland

  1. East Rajasthan-Mahabharat Plateau
  • It extends over East Rajasthan, North-West Madhya Pradesh and small area in Gujarat. They are divided in Aravali and East Plain.

Aravali Range

  • Extended from North-East (Delhi) to South-West in Gujarat.
  • Major part is located in Rajasthan
  • In North Aravali is less than 400 m height and in South the height is about 900 m. In the southern part Aravali is more continuous. Gurupeak (1722 m) lies in Abu hills is highest peak.
  • Aravali is highly eroded.
  • Its regional names are Jerga hills, Marwara hills, Bhorat plateau, Abu hills and in north its Delhi ridge.

East plain

  • It includes Chambal Basin, Banas plain and Central Mahi plain (Chappan plain).
  • In Chambal Basin, Ravines are developed. They are extended in Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh.

Malwa Plateau

  • North- Aravali, South-Vindhya, East- Bundelkhand.
  • Two drainage system are here –
  1. Towards Arabian Sea (Narmada, Tapi)
  2. Towards Bay of Bengal (Chambal, Betwa as Yamuna Tributary)
  • Malwa plateau is narrow in East and Broad in West.

Bundelkhand Highlands

  • North-Yamuna, South-Vindhya Range, North West – Chambal river and South East – Panna-Ajaygarh range.
  • In the North West and North East part, this highland is covered with Alluvium of Ganga-Yamuna and in South by Deccan Trap.
  • 1/3 part is flat plain.

Vindhyachal-Baghelkhand Plateau

  • This is transition zone of Vindhya and Satpuda
  • Rich in Sandstone

Chota Nagpur Plateau

  • Extended in Jharkhand, West Bengal
  • North Chota Nagpur includes Palamu highland, Hazaribagh plateau, Damodar valley and Santhal area while in South Chota Nagpur pat lands, Ranchi plateau and Singhbhumi’s are located.
  • Centre of Western part have most height known as Pat lands.

Meghalaya-Mikir Highlands

  • It includes Garo, Khasi, Jayantia & Mikir and Rengma hills.
  • Separated from the peninsula by Malda gap. This plateau had steep slope at South and is known as war country.
  • Mikir hills are surrounded by plains in North East and are separated from Meghalaya plateau. Its south range is called as Rengmna hills.

Maharashtra hills

  • Includes whole Maharashtra out her than Sahyadri and Konkan plain.
  • Deccan trap is peculiarity which chiefly made up of Basalt.

Mahanadi Basin

  • This is also known as Chattisgarh plain extends in Raipur-Durg (South-West) Bilaspur (North-West) and Raigarh (East).
  • They are rich in Red and Yellow soil suitable for rice cultivation.

Garhjat hills

  • They are also called Orissa highland.
  • Mahanadi divides it into two parts.
  • South West port is open plateau and covered with dense forests.

Dandakaranya

  • Lies in Orissa, Chattisgarh and Andhra Pradesh.
  • Dandakaranya highland mainly includes Bastar Plateau.
  • Bailadila range is rich in Iron-ore
  • Kalahandi area is in Dandakaryana Ghat.

Karnataka Plateau

  • Lies in Karnataka and Kerala.
  • Northern part is covered with Deccan trap.
  • Mulangiri peak (1923) is highest peak in Baba Budan hills, Kudremukh peak (1892 m).
  • Malnaad is 320 km long in the form of Western Ghat. Northern highland consists of Black soil. Southern par tis more in height.
  • Nandi hills are summer vacation centre.

Telangana Plateau

  • There are two physiographic divisions –
  1. Telengana 2. Royal Seema highlands

Tamil Nadu Highland

  • Lies between Southern Sahayadri and Tamil Nadu coastal plain
  • Zavadi, Shevaroy hills and panchmalai are important hills.
  • Between Coimbatore and Annamalai lies the Palghat Pass.

Sahayadri

  • 1600 km length from Tapi estuary to Cape Cameron
  • Western slope is steep and erect while east slope is slow.
  • They acts as water divide in peninsular India
  • Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri originates from here
  • River flowing in west makes waterfall eg. Jog Waterfall (250 m) on Sharavati river.
  • Thalghat, Bhorghat and Palghat are important passes
  • Near Nilgiri, Sahayadri merges with East ghats to form mountain knot with Doda Beta (2637 m) as highest peak.
  • Annamalai from North, Palami hills from North East and Cardomon from South merges to form Anaimudi knot. Anaimudi is the highest peak of South India is situated here (2695 m).
  • Annamalai had Sagaun, Ebony, Rose Wood and Bamboo Forests.
  • On the hilly slopes here Tea, coffee and Cardamom are grown.

East Ghats

  • They form the Eastern boundary with Deccan Plateau
  • They are Discontinuous.
  • Middle East Ghats between Chennai and Krishna river are Kondavidu hills.
  • Mahendragiri (1500 m) is highest peak.

Vindhya Ranges

  • They Extends from Gujarat to Sasaram (Bihar).
  • Maikal range joins Vindhya and Satpuda
  • With Satpuda, the Vindhya are water divide in the Central India.

Satpuda Range

  • They are parallel to Vindhya’s and are located in the middle of Narmada-Tapi valley and extends up to Amarkantak. They are divided in 3 parts – 1. Rajpipla hills Mahadeo hills                3. Amarkantak
  • West Satpuda separates Narmada and Tapi valleys.
  • Middle Satpuda are Mahadeo hills and Panchmadi is located here.

Coastal Plains

  • West Coastal Plains
  • Situated between Sahyadri and Arabian Sea
  • North Coastal plains (Maharashtra, Goa) are called Konkan plains
  • Middle plains are Kannada plains
  • Southern part is Malabar plain

East Coast Plains

  • Lies between East Ghats and Bay of Bengal
  • Northern part of the plains are ‘Northern Circars’ and the Southern area is ‘Coromandal Coast’.
  • From Cape Cameron to Pulicat lake, the middle part is Tamil Nadu plain.
  • Andhra Plain lies between Pulicat lake and Behrampur whose development is also contributed by Krishna-Godavari delta. In the mids of two delta lies the Kollelru Lake.
  • Utkal plain are situated along with Orissa coast. South of it lies the biggest salt water lake Chilka (India).

Islands

  • There are 36 islands in Lakshadweep. 10 islands are inhabited by people with 60,000 population.
  • They are coral islands
  • The Southern most island is Minicoy which is separated from Maldives by 80 Pittly island is Birds sanctuary.
  • Kavaratii is capital
  1. Andaman and Nicobar are separated by 100 channel. Here rainfall occurs throughout year. The Southern most point is Indira Point.
  • Andaman islands group had 204 islands which are the submerged part of Arakan Yoma range of Burma.
  • Dense forests are found and Mt. Saddle is (750 m) is highest peak.
  • Barren and Norcondom are volcanic islands situated east of Andaman.
  • Nicobar had 19 islands, 13 of them are inhabited. Car Nicobar, Chaura and Pulomillo are Coral islands while rest are submerged hills.

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