Indian Peninsular plateau
Indian Peninsular plateau
Date: December 11, 2014
- Extended over 16 lakh km2
- Aravali range marks the North-West end, Bundelkhand highland marks the North Boundary (including Kaimur and Rajmahal hills), in south; Southern Sahyadri marks the boundary and Eastern ghats forms the East boundary.
- Peninsular plateau is divided into two parts by fault through which Narmada flows
- North of Narmada, the plateau is known Central Highlands and its slope is towards North.
- The Southern part is called Deccan plateau. Its slope is towards East. It comprises of East and West ghats, Satpuda range.
Divisions of Peninsular highland
- East Rajasthan-Mahabharat Plateau
- It extends over East Rajasthan, North-West Madhya Pradesh and small area in Gujarat. They are divided in Aravali and East Plain.
- Extended from North-East (Delhi) to South-West in Gujarat.
- Major part is located in Rajasthan
- In North Aravali is less than 400 m height and in South the height is about 900 m. In the southern part Aravali is more continuous. Gurupeak (1722 m) lies in Abu hills is highest peak.
- Aravali is highly eroded.
- Its regional names are Jerga hills, Marwara hills, Bhorat plateau, Abu hills and in north its Delhi ridge.
- It includes Chambal Basin, Banas plain and Central Mahi plain (Chappan plain).
- In Chambal Basin, Ravines are developed. They are extended in Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh.
- North- Aravali, South-Vindhya, East- Bundelkhand.
- Two drainage system are here –
- Towards Arabian Sea (Narmada, Tapi)
- Towards Bay of Bengal (Chambal, Betwa as Yamuna Tributary)
- Malwa plateau is narrow in East and Broad in West.
- North-Yamuna, South-Vindhya Range, North West – Chambal river and South East – Panna-Ajaygarh range.
- In the North West and North East part, this highland is covered with Alluvium of Ganga-Yamuna and in South by Deccan Trap.
- 1/3 part is flat plain.
- This is transition zone of Vindhya and Satpuda
- Rich in Sandstone
Chota Nagpur Plateau
- Extended in Jharkhand, West Bengal
- North Chota Nagpur includes Palamu highland, Hazaribagh plateau, Damodar valley and Santhal area while in South Chota Nagpur pat lands, Ranchi plateau and Singhbhumi’s are located.
- Centre of Western part have most height known as Pat lands.
- It includes Garo, Khasi, Jayantia & Mikir and Rengma hills.
- Separated from the peninsula by Malda gap. This plateau had steep slope at South and is known as war country.
- Mikir hills are surrounded by plains in North East and are separated from Meghalaya plateau. Its south range is called as Rengmna hills.
- Includes whole Maharashtra out her than Sahyadri and Konkan plain.
- Deccan trap is peculiarity which chiefly made up of Basalt.
- This is also known as Chattisgarh plain extends in Raipur-Durg (South-West) Bilaspur (North-West) and Raigarh (East).
- They are rich in Red and Yellow soil suitable for rice cultivation.
- They are also called Orissa highland.
- Mahanadi divides it into two parts.
- South West port is open plateau and covered with dense forests.
- Lies in Orissa, Chattisgarh and Andhra Pradesh.
- Dandakaranya highland mainly includes Bastar Plateau.
- Bailadila range is rich in Iron-ore
- Kalahandi area is in Dandakaryana Ghat.
- Lies in Karnataka and Kerala.
- Northern part is covered with Deccan trap.
- Mulangiri peak (1923) is highest peak in Baba Budan hills, Kudremukh peak (1892 m).
- Malnaad is 320 km long in the form of Western Ghat. Northern highland consists of Black soil. Southern par tis more in height.
- Nandi hills are summer vacation centre.
- There are two physiographic divisions –
- Telengana 2. Royal Seema highlands
Tamil Nadu Highland
- Lies between Southern Sahayadri and Tamil Nadu coastal plain
- Zavadi, Shevaroy hills and panchmalai are important hills.
- Between Coimbatore and Annamalai lies the Palghat Pass.
- 1600 km length from Tapi estuary to Cape Cameron
- Western slope is steep and erect while east slope is slow.
- They acts as water divide in peninsular India
- Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri originates from here
- River flowing in west makes waterfall eg. Jog Waterfall (250 m) on Sharavati river.
- Thalghat, Bhorghat and Palghat are important passes
- Near Nilgiri, Sahayadri merges with East ghats to form mountain knot with Doda Beta (2637 m) as highest peak.
- Annamalai from North, Palami hills from North East and Cardomon from South merges to form Anaimudi knot. Anaimudi is the highest peak of South India is situated here (2695 m).
- Annamalai had Sagaun, Ebony, Rose Wood and Bamboo Forests.
- On the hilly slopes here Tea, coffee and Cardamom are grown.
- They form the Eastern boundary with Deccan Plateau
- They are Discontinuous.
- Middle East Ghats between Chennai and Krishna river are Kondavidu hills.
- Mahendragiri (1500 m) is highest peak.
- They Extends from Gujarat to Sasaram (Bihar).
- Maikal range joins Vindhya and Satpuda
- With Satpuda, the Vindhya are water divide in the Central India.
- They are parallel to Vindhya’s and are located in the middle of Narmada-Tapi valley and extends up to Amarkantak. They are divided in 3 parts – 1. Rajpipla hills Mahadeo hills 3. Amarkantak
- West Satpuda separates Narmada and Tapi valleys.
- Middle Satpuda are Mahadeo hills and Panchmadi is located here.
- West Coastal Plains
- Situated between Sahyadri and Arabian Sea
- North Coastal plains (Maharashtra, Goa) are called Konkan plains
- Middle plains are Kannada plains
- Southern part is Malabar plain
East Coast Plains
- Lies between East Ghats and Bay of Bengal
- Northern part of the plains are ‘Northern Circars’ and the Southern area is ‘Coromandal Coast’.
- From Cape Cameron to Pulicat lake, the middle part is Tamil Nadu plain.
- Andhra Plain lies between Pulicat lake and Behrampur whose development is also contributed by Krishna-Godavari delta. In the mids of two delta lies the Kollelru Lake.
- Utkal plain are situated along with Orissa coast. South of it lies the biggest salt water lake Chilka (India).
- There are 36 islands in Lakshadweep. 10 islands are inhabited by people with 60,000 population.
- They are coral islands
- The Southern most island is Minicoy which is separated from Maldives by 80 Pittly island is Birds sanctuary.
- Kavaratii is capital
- Andaman and Nicobar are separated by 100 channel. Here rainfall occurs throughout year. The Southern most point is Indira Point.
- Andaman islands group had 204 islands which are the submerged part of Arakan Yoma range of Burma.
- Dense forests are found and Mt. Saddle is (750 m) is highest peak.
- Barren and Norcondom are volcanic islands situated east of Andaman.
- Nicobar had 19 islands, 13 of them are inhabited. Car Nicobar, Chaura and Pulomillo are Coral islands while rest are submerged hills.