Major Crops of the world

Date: December 13, 2014

Major Crops of World

  1. Wheat

Geographical Conditions of Cultivation

  * This is Temperate-Tropical region crops. This grows in various climatic regions. 220-600 N and 200-450 S latitudes are the regions of wheat growth

* Temperature – During sowing 100 – 150 C                    * Ripening Season 200 – 270  C

* 100 days minimum frost free season                                             * 50-100 cm rainfall

* Mediterranean climate is appropriate                                           * Irrigation is necessary in low rainfall zones like in Sindh, Punjab

* Loam and clay with hummus is appropriate soil, Praries and Black soil of Ukraine ‘Chernozem’ is appropriate.

* Plains where agriculture machinery and irrigation could be done.

* Tractor and other machines and Godown are also required.

Wheat Producing Areas

* Ukraine to Yenerse river in East (4500 km) in the winters while Volga basin, Ural region and Kazakhstan produce in spring.

* In USA, spring season wheat is grown in Praries and Nebraska acts a divide between winter-spring belt.

* Spring wheat belt-Dakota and Mentana

* Winter wheat belt-Kansaas to Oklahoma (Southern great plains)

* Columbia plateau and California valley

* Praries of Canada Sasketchvaan region, Manitoba and Alberta region.

* Pampas region in Argentina

* Huang Ho and Yangtze valley in China (Hobli and Hunan province of Huang ho basin)

* Murray-Darling basin in Australia

* Due to Mediterranean climate in Central Chile wheat is grown.

* China, Japan, Britain, Germany, Brazil are major import’s while USA, Canada, Australia, Argentina are major exporters. USA is biggest exporter of wheat.

  1. Rice

* Rice is tropical and sub-tropical plant

* 400N – 400S latitudes are rice regions.

* Rice is mainly grown in the Monsoon ASIA.

* Temperature – Sowing 200C, Ripening 240C Because of consistency of this temperature range West Bengal grew 3 crops yearly.

* Rainfall – 100-150 cm rainfall

* The flat field in Hill areas the rice is grown along slop in ladder manner.

* Soil – Clay heavy loam is necessary. So rice is grown along with river delta and coastal plains.

* Labour – Most of the work is done manually cheap labour is required. This is why such agriculture is called ‘Hoe Culture’.

* Important Areas – China is major producing areas      1. Yangsee and delta                        2. Sikiang valley and delta

  1. South East Coast                          4. Sichuan Region           

* Japan had maximum per hectare yield. Quanto plains and South of Houchu islands

* Java, Sumatra in Indonesia                * Khulna, Dhaka and Memansing in delta region in delta region of Bangladesh.

* Indo-China is also known as ‘Rice bewn’

* Thailand is called ‘Rice Country’. Menam Delta is major region. In Burma, Irawady delta and Meiking delta in Vietnaam.

* Yangan and Bangkok are the export centre for rice.

* USA – Mississippi valley, Gulf coastal region and California are major region.

* Nand South Korea also produces rice.

 

  1. Tea

* Tea had ‘Theine’ element

* Tea is hot wet climate plant. This is grown in tropical and sub tropical regions

* Fog and dew are helpful in growth of tea leaves.

* Temperature – It requires high temperature throughout year (200-300C). This cause the plucking of tea leaves throughout year.

* Frost is harmful                    

* Rainfall – 200-250 cm rainfall, dry season is harmful

*  Soil – Deep soil with humus content is good. Potash, Iron and Phosphorous are good while calcium should be low in soil.

* Water should not stagnate sea roots so tea gardens are located on hill slopes

* Labour – Cheap labour in good number generally women’s

* So as to manage the plantation, there should be proper management and high capital is required

* South-East Monsoon Asia is major producer of tea

* India is major producer

* China        1. East Coast Valley                         2. Yangtze Valley and Siachin region

* Sri Lanka – Kandy and Nuware Ellia hilly slopes

* Japan is famous for ‘Green Tea’ among which ‘Sancha’ tea is popular.

* Sizuka region in South Honshu, Tokyo-Nagaya plain and North Kuyshn Island

* In Indonesia West Java is major region and Sumatra is also growing tea.

* Taiman Produce ‘Vllang’ Tea.

 

  1. Cotton

* Tropical and sub-tropical region crop            * 210-270  C Temperature                            * 50-100 cm Rainfall

* Frost is harmful                                    * Clear sky and sunlight                              * Irrigation needed in low rainfall area

* Basallite Black soil is appropriate    * Labourer are needed                  * In cold areas ‘Bob Wevil’

Major Regions :

*  In South-East USA good quality cotton staple is grown (more than 5 cm)

* Texas, Alabama, Carolina, Tennessee are import cotton region in USA.

* California, Arizona and New Mexico also produced cotton

* Central plateau regions Whittle Valley, Hwang plain, Yangtze valley

* In Egypt, Nile valley and delta produce cotton whose 60-80% in exported to West Europe

* San Polo in Brazil and Peru

* Sindhu valley in Pakistan, Irrawaddy valley in Pakistan are important regions.

 

  1. Coffee

* Coffee had caffeine. This is grown in Tropical region’s highland of 500-1500 m. height.

* Temperature – High temperature throughout year is needed. Coffee Alabica 150-200 C, Coffee Robust 200-300 C

* Frost free season is needed and so as to avoid such frost, coffee plants are grown under shady trees. High wind is also harmful.

* Grown of slopes

* 160-250 cm rainfall

* Soil should be rich in Iron, lime, humus (Tera Roxxa of Brazil)

* Protection is needed against beatle insect.

* Cheap labours is also required

* Important Regions - Brazil is leading producer. Major regions are     1. Rio De Jenario region           2. Minas Geraes                                                                                                                         3.  San Polo region

Geographical Condition in Brazil

*  Favourable Climate – During growth there is hot wet climate and cool, dry weather during maturity.

* Masapi and Terra Roxxa soil (Red colour)                   * Fezandas of the Plateau region

* Export from the Santos port                                            

* Brazil produces large quantity of coffee which is not of good quality

* Columbia is also coffee region

* Jamaican coffee is known as ‘Blue Mountain Coffee’

* Plateau of East Africa (Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania) and Tropical Countries of West Africa (Ghana, Cameron)

   * Mokka (Moccha, Nocha) coffee of Arab is quite popular. Yeman grows Arabica coffee, Brazil, Columbia and India are major exporters. USA is biggest importer.

 

  1. Sugarcane

* Temperature – Continuous high temperature 210-270 C            * Frost is extremely harmful

* 75-120 cm rainfall                * Tropical humid regions are good

* River valley soils rich in lime and phosphorous are good. The soils should be deep, capable to be retain moisture

* Fertilizers and insecticides are required.

* Regions                   1. India                 2. Brazil is leading nation                             

* North-East Coast                                 * South-East Coast                        * Campos plains

* Cuba is the sugar town of World       Here per hectare yield is high        * Hawai islands also grown Sugarcane

* Queensland coastal plains in Australia                          * Java Island     * Mississippi delta in USA and Coastal plains of Peru

* Cuba is leading state in Sugar export                             * The weight of sugarcane lowers after it had been cut so the sugar mills are * located nearby of Sugarcane producing area

  1. Sugar beet

These are 2nd mean to get sugar

 

 

 


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