Major Crops of the world
Major Crops of the world
Date: December 13, 2014
Major Crops of World
Geographical Conditions of Cultivation
* This is Temperate-Tropical region crops. This grows in various climatic regions. 220-600 N and 200-450 S latitudes are the regions of wheat growth
* Temperature – During sowing 100 – 150 C * Ripening Season 200 – 270 C
* 100 days minimum frost free season * 50-100 cm rainfall
* Mediterranean climate is appropriate * Irrigation is necessary in low rainfall zones like in Sindh, Punjab
* Loam and clay with hummus is appropriate soil, Praries and Black soil of Ukraine ‘Chernozem’ is appropriate.
* Plains where agriculture machinery and irrigation could be done.
* Tractor and other machines and Godown are also required.
Wheat Producing Areas –
* Ukraine to Yenerse river in East (4500 km) in the winters while Volga basin, Ural region and Kazakhstan produce in spring.
* In USA, spring season wheat is grown in Praries and Nebraska acts a divide between winter-spring belt.
* Spring wheat belt-Dakota and Mentana
* Winter wheat belt-Kansaas to Oklahoma (Southern great plains)
* Columbia plateau and California valley
* Praries of Canada Sasketchvaan region, Manitoba and Alberta region.
* Pampas region in Argentina
* Huang Ho and Yangtze valley in China (Hobli and Hunan province of Huang ho basin)
* Murray-Darling basin in Australia
* Due to Mediterranean climate in Central Chile wheat is grown.
* China, Japan, Britain, Germany, Brazil are major import’s while USA, Canada, Australia, Argentina are major exporters. USA is biggest exporter of wheat.
* Rice is tropical and sub-tropical plant
* 400N – 400S latitudes are rice regions.
* Rice is mainly grown in the Monsoon ASIA.
* Temperature – Sowing 200C, Ripening 240C Because of consistency of this temperature range West Bengal grew 3 crops yearly.
* Rainfall – 100-150 cm rainfall
* The flat field in Hill areas the rice is grown along slop in ladder manner.
* Soil – Clay heavy loam is necessary. So rice is grown along with river delta and coastal plains.
* Labour – Most of the work is done manually cheap labour is required. This is why such agriculture is called ‘Hoe Culture’.
* Important Areas – China is major producing areas 1. Yangsee and delta 2. Sikiang valley and delta
- South East Coast 4. Sichuan Region
* Japan had maximum per hectare yield. Quanto plains and South of Houchu islands
* Java, Sumatra in Indonesia * Khulna, Dhaka and Memansing in delta region in delta region of Bangladesh.
* Indo-China is also known as ‘Rice bewn’
* Thailand is called ‘Rice Country’. Menam Delta is major region. In Burma, Irawady delta and Meiking delta in Vietnaam.
* Yangan and Bangkok are the export centre for rice.
* USA – Mississippi valley, Gulf coastal region and California are major region.
* Nand South Korea also produces rice.
* Tea had ‘Theine’ element
* Tea is hot wet climate plant. This is grown in tropical and sub tropical regions
* Fog and dew are helpful in growth of tea leaves.
* Temperature – It requires high temperature throughout year (200-300C). This cause the plucking of tea leaves throughout year.
* Frost is harmful
* Rainfall – 200-250 cm rainfall, dry season is harmful
* Soil – Deep soil with humus content is good. Potash, Iron and Phosphorous are good while calcium should be low in soil.
* Water should not stagnate sea roots so tea gardens are located on hill slopes
* Labour – Cheap labour in good number generally women’s
* So as to manage the plantation, there should be proper management and high capital is required
* South-East Monsoon Asia is major producer of tea
* India is major producer
* China 1. East Coast Valley 2. Yangtze Valley and Siachin region
* Sri Lanka – Kandy and Nuware Ellia hilly slopes
* Japan is famous for ‘Green Tea’ among which ‘Sancha’ tea is popular.
* Sizuka region in South Honshu, Tokyo-Nagaya plain and North Kuyshn Island
* In Indonesia West Java is major region and Sumatra is also growing tea.
* Taiman Produce ‘Vllang’ Tea.
* Tropical and sub-tropical region crop * 210-270 C Temperature * 50-100 cm Rainfall
* Frost is harmful * Clear sky and sunlight * Irrigation needed in low rainfall area
* Basallite Black soil is appropriate * Labourer are needed * In cold areas ‘Bob Wevil’
Major Regions :
* In South-East USA good quality cotton staple is grown (more than 5 cm)
* Texas, Alabama, Carolina, Tennessee are import cotton region in USA.
* California, Arizona and New Mexico also produced cotton
* Central plateau regions Whittle Valley, Hwang plain, Yangtze valley
* In Egypt, Nile valley and delta produce cotton whose 60-80% in exported to West Europe
* San Polo in Brazil and Peru
* Sindhu valley in Pakistan, Irrawaddy valley in Pakistan are important regions.
* Coffee had caffeine. This is grown in Tropical region’s highland of 500-1500 m. height.
* Temperature – High temperature throughout year is needed. Coffee Alabica 150-200 C, Coffee Robust 200-300 C
* Frost free season is needed and so as to avoid such frost, coffee plants are grown under shady trees. High wind is also harmful.
* Grown of slopes
* 160-250 cm rainfall
* Soil should be rich in Iron, lime, humus (Tera Roxxa of Brazil)
* Protection is needed against beatle insect.
* Cheap labours is also required
* Important Regions - Brazil is leading producer. Major regions are 1. Rio De Jenario region 2. Minas Geraes 3. San Polo region
Geographical Condition in Brazil
* Favourable Climate – During growth there is hot wet climate and cool, dry weather during maturity.
* Masapi and Terra Roxxa soil (Red colour) * Fezandas of the Plateau region
* Export from the Santos port
* Brazil produces large quantity of coffee which is not of good quality
* Columbia is also coffee region
* Jamaican coffee is known as ‘Blue Mountain Coffee’
* Plateau of East Africa (Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania) and Tropical Countries of West Africa (Ghana, Cameron)
* Mokka (Moccha, Nocha) coffee of Arab is quite popular. Yeman grows Arabica coffee, Brazil, Columbia and India are major exporters. USA is biggest importer.
* Temperature – Continuous high temperature 210-270 C * Frost is extremely harmful
* 75-120 cm rainfall * Tropical humid regions are good
* River valley soils rich in lime and phosphorous are good. The soils should be deep, capable to be retain moisture
* Fertilizers and insecticides are required.
* Regions 1. India 2. Brazil is leading nation
* North-East Coast * South-East Coast * Campos plains
* Cuba is the sugar town of World Here per hectare yield is high * Hawai islands also grown Sugarcane
* Queensland coastal plains in Australia * Java Island * Mississippi delta in USA and Coastal plains of Peru
* Cuba is leading state in Sugar export * The weight of sugarcane lowers after it had been cut so the sugar mills are * located nearby of Sugarcane producing area
- Sugar beet
These are 2nd mean to get sugar