Major Industries

Date: December 13, 2014

Major Industries

Iron Steel Industry

Iron Steel Industries are the base of the Modern Industrial Age. The production of Iron Steel is the measuring scale of the nation’s economic development.

Locational Factors

  1. Raw Material – This industry is placed near the Iron and coal mines. Manganese, limestone, water and scrap iron should be located nearby.
  2. Coking Coal – Coal is needed as the fuel for blast furnaces where iron is washed. Wood coal is also used.
  3. Cheap Land – Furnaces, Godown, Building and factory need cheap and enough land for expansion.
  4. Nearby Market – Manufactured products and machines are heavy so the industries are set near demand area.
  5. Capital – To set up industry at modern parameters sufficient capital is required. In the developing countries, the iron steel factories are established with the help of developed countries.
  6. Transport (cheaper), skilled labour, safe place and technology should also be needed so as to set up industry.

Major Regions

  1. Russia – Ural Region : Here Magnitogosk, Nizhiny Tagil, Sverdlovsk, Chelyabinsk and Yekaterinburg are famous.
  • Moscow Region : There are steel plants in Moscow, Tonla and Gorki
  • Kuzbas Region (Kuznetsk) major centres are Novokuzenetsk and Novosibirsk.
  • ‘Far East’ region had Amur Valley centre.
  • Ural-Kuznetsk Comkine : Kuznetsk’s coal, is sent to ural region by trans-siberian Railway which while returning carries the iron to Kuznetsk region.
  • Ukraine region : Krivoirog is the major centre. Coal is available from the Donbas, Manganese from Nicopole and Hydro power from Dnieper river.
  1. United States of America – Here the Iron steel industry is mainly concentrated in the Eastern part.
  • High quality coal is available from the Applacian range.
  • Lake superior region Mesabi mine supplies iron. lime is available from West of Huron lake.
  • Great lakes provide transport facility and labourers are also available.
  • In the East USA, the industries are concentrated which are the market of iron steel.

Important Regions :

  • Pittsberg and Youngstown in the East of great lakes while Chicago and Garry in West.
  • The demand of Iron steel in high in Detroit, Cleveland and Chicago’s railway industry.
  • Duluth near Superior lake, Gary and Chicago at the Michigan lake.
  • Erie lake – Detroit, Cleveland and Buffalo
  • At the East Coast, Iron is imported from Chile and Venezuela.
  • Europe : Germany – Ruhr valley, Saar region, Essen, Bochum, Dusseldorf and Dortmund are important centres.
  • Britain : Cardiff in South Wales.
  • North-East Coast – New Castle, Middlesbrough and Darlington.
  • Yorkshire – Sheffield (Famous for cutlery).
  • Birmingham in Midland which is called Black country due to concentration of factories, Glasgow in Scotland.
  • France – Nancy in Lorraine region, Metz and Longway, Sambrey and Muze coal region in Belgim and Luxumberg
  • Denmorra in Sweden
  • Lorraine region had coal reserve while Rhur valley had high quality coking coal. Rhine and canals are highly developed for transport and whole of West Europe is a high demand zone.
  • Japan – Here there is no coal, iron reserve and totally depended upon the import.
  • Yaavata in Mozi Nagasaki region.
  • Region in South Honshu Shimonseki.
  • Muroron in Hokkido
  • Kobe in Osaka region
  • Tokyo in Yokohama region
  • China – 1. Shansi and Shaansi region had high quality coal. Yangtze valley and Manchuria had Iron.
  • Ansham and Shenyoung in Manchuria
  • Wuhan and Shangi in Yangtz valley
  1. India – 1. Tata Iron & Steel (TISCO), Jamshedpur, Jharkhand
  • This is the sole private sector steel plant in India.
  1. Indian Iron and Steel Company, Burnpur, This is near Asansol (West Bengal)
  • Iron from Gua mines, coal from Jharia, Manganese from Orissa, Water from Damodar, Electricity from the Damodar Valley corporation. Labours from Bengal and Bihar. Chhittranjan locomotive runs on this.
  1. Vishveshvaraiya Iron Steel Ltd., Bhadrawati
  • Raw iron from Baba Budan hills, limestone from Bhandigonda, Electricity from Jog and Sharavati Project and demand/market in South India.
  1. Hindustan Steel Ltd. – Rourkela (German help)
  • At the junction of Saankh and Koyal river, Sundargarh, Orissa.
  • Iron is received from Barsna and Coal from Bokaro
  1. Hindustan Steel Ltd. (Former USSR’s help) – Durg district, Chattisgarh
  2. Hindustan Steel Ltd. – Durgapur (with British help), Bardhman district, West Bengal.
  3. Bokaro steel Ltd., Hajaribagh district. This is situated at junction of Bokaro and Damodar river.
  4. Salem Steel Factory – Tamil Nadu
  5. Vishakapatnam Steel Factory, this is first coastal steel plant.
  6. Vijaynagar steel plant - Torngaal, Bellary
  • Port Kembla in Australia


Chemical Industry : Petro Chemicals

Raw Material – 1. Natural – Minerals, Coal, Petrol, Salt, Potash, Sulphur, Limestone, Gypsum, Vegetable oil and Pulp

  1. By Products of other Industries which are paper and pulp industry, Iron Steel industry, Gas Manufacturing Industries are mainly used in Chemical Industry.

Localization Elements – 1. Availability of Raw Material                    2. Transport with cheap and easy

  1. Energy Source                                               4. Demand of chemicals in other Industries
  • Refining is the major Industry
  • The products are transported through pipelines and tankers. These provide favourable conditions to refineries with whom market and sea ports are attached.
  • USA – Refining is done in Gulf of Mexico. Here oil comes from Venezuela and West Asia. The oil is then sent to West and East. Petrochemical complex are developed in East at Philadelphia and Delaware while Chicago and Toledo in the Great lakes region.
  • Los Angeles is the major centre in West Coast.
  • Montreal and Sarnia are important centre in Canada. These import crude oil from Venezuela.
  • In Venezuela, refinery is located in Paraguana Peninsula and oil is brought from Maricaibo lake.
  • Europe – Major complex are located in Southern North Sea and English Channel. Antwerp, Rotterdam and Southampton.
  • Germany – Rhur valley
  • France – Le Havrayan Marcellus
  • Saudi Arab – Ras Tanura
  • Kuwait – Mina el Ahmadi
  • India – Union Carbide in Trombay, Kochi in Vedodara


Cotton Textile

Cotton Textile is mainly extended in the USA, Russia, Europe, India and Japan.          

Locational Factors – 1. Source of Raw Materials                  2. Skilled labour               

  1. Humid climate                                          4. Cheap transport and nearby market
  • USA – New England Region Boston, fall river, New Bedford and Lowell are major centres. This area is now a low production zone.
  1. Appalachian Region – Baltimore, Philadelphia and New York are important centres. Here readymade clothes industry is developed.
  2. Southern States – North and South Carolina. Georgia and Tennessee are major centres.
  • Russia – Moscow – Ivanov are the major centres. Ivanov is the Manchester of Russia

Leningrad (St. Petersburg)

  • Central Asia – Tashkent, Barnaull, Ashgabat and Fargama are centres.

Ukraine – Volgo Basin, Ural region are other centres.

  • China – 1. Yangtze Valley - Shanghai is the Manchester of China Hauong Ho Valley    3. Kanton in South China
  • Japan – Tokyo – 1. Yokohoma region Kobe – Osaka region is the major centre. Which is Manchester of Japan                      3. Nagaya is also important centre
  • Britain – Manchester, Glasgow and Nottingham

Major Industrial Complexes


  1. Midland Region – This is in Britain and Leads and Nottingham are famous centres. Iron steel centres is in Birmingham which is called Black Region.
  2. London Region – This site is international market. Ship building, clothes, chemicals and production of steel machinery are important.
  3. Scotland – Clinde valley had Glasgow and Edinburgh which are sites of ship building and Iron-Steel Industry. Aveerdeen is famous for Woollen Clothes.
  4. South Wales – Iron Steel, Mefal and Chemical Industries are in Cardiff city.
  5. Paris – Jewellery, Scents, Fashion and Glass products are made.
  6. Ruhr Region – Coal based industries, Iron-Steel, Silk woollen clothes, Motor Car and Chemical Industries are situated.
  7. Saxony Region – Leipzig in East Germany had Iron & Steel, Cloth, Chemical Industries.
  8. Poland – Sileshia coal region had Machine, Chemical, Clothes and metal industries.

Industrial Complexes in North America


  1. New England Region – * Boston city in the centre * Woollen clothes centre is in Lowell and in Providence

* Ship building and leather industry is in Boston

  1. Great Lake Region – * Located between Pittsburg and Erie lake region * Iron-steel based industrial centre

* Pitts berg region is the world’s capita for the steel                           * Rubber type is in Ekeren

* Chemical Industry is located in Buffalo                                            

* Michigan Region – Steel centre is in Chicago and Gary   * Chicago is the centre for meat packing

* Detroit is the centre for Motor car industry

Japan Industrial Complexes – Tokyo, Yokohama, Kawasaki in Quanto plain in Honshu Island is the major centre of Industries in Japan.

  1. Tokyo – Electric appliances, Television, Refrigerator, Computer and other Electronic goods.
  2. Yokohama – Ship building, Oil refineries and Engineering industry.
  3. Kawasaki – Marine engineering, Glass and cement industries.
  • Nagoya is the Detroit of Japan

Industrial Complex in China

  • Southern Manchuria is Iron steel producing region. Shenyang is the important centre.
  • Shanghai is the centre for ship building, food processing, cement and engineering industries.
  • Wuhan is also important centre.

Russia : Industrial Complex

  1. Moscow Region – This is concentrates around Moscow and Tonla region. These are important in Iron-Steel, Clothes, Petro Chemicals, Machinery and Paper Industry.
  2. Ukraine – Round the Kivoirog region, Iron steel, metal industry and aeronautics.
  3. Volga-Ural Region – Magnitogorsk and Chelyabinsk are the main regions. These are main regions of Iron Steel heavy machines, agriculture machinery, Petrochemicals and Metal industries.

Industrial Complex in Southern Hemisphere

  • Australia – Sydney – Melbourne – Adelaide had Dairy and food products industries. Sydney and Brisbane are also important centres.
  • Cape town – Durban region in South Africa is another important region.
  • Rio-de-Janerio and San-Polo are the major industrial site in South America (Brazil)