Plantation Crops

Date: December 13, 2014

Plantation Crops

  1. Tea
  • India is the largest tea producer
  • 250-300C temperature, 150-250 cm annual rainfall
  • Tea plantation are located along the hills lope
  • Two types (varieties) of tea are grown – 1. Bohea or Chinese – Its plant are big and leaves are soft. It is grown 1500 m. height. Assamica or Assamese – Dwarf plants and leathery leaves are there. it is grown upto 2400 m. height.
  • Production – Assam is leading state with 49% production. Tea is grown maximum in Brahmaputra valley. Lakhimpur, Shivsagar and Darang district are famous. Assam is popular for Pungent liquor tea.
  • West Bengal is 2nd in production. Darjeeling tea is famous for smell and taste.
  • Nilgiri district produce 45% of tea in Tamil Nadu. Kerala also produce some tea.
  • Trade – Tea is mainly consumed locally bent is also exported. India is the 3rd big exporter after Sri Lanka and China. These two nations provide big competition for India.
  1. Coffee
  • Hot and wet climate is suitable. Mainly grown in Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka.
  • 160-280 C temperature, 150-200 cm rainfall.
  • Two varieties of coffee are there – 1. Arabica (750-1500 m height)    Robusta (300-650 m height)
  • Coffee plants are grown in January to March and3-4 years after they start giving fruits.
  • Karnataka is the leading producer with 72% of total production. Chikmaglaur district is well known coffee producing area. Arabica coffee is grown over 2/3rd of total coffee area.
  • Kerala and Tamil Nadu are other important states.
  • 40% of the coffee is consumed in Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
  • 1/3rd of coffee is exported to UK. Mangalore port is important. Brazil is India’s major competitor.
  1. Rubber
  • 250-300 C temperature * 300 cm rainfall                            * 300-700 m slope is required
  • The rubber plants are grown in nursery and then implanted into the plantation.
  • India is the 4th leading state in Natural Rubber. Kerala had monopoly in Rubber production.
  • The rubber produced is not enough for local requirement. So the need is fulfilled by imports and synthetic rubber from Bareilly and Vadodara.
  1. Coconut
  • Raw coconut is used in drinking, oil is obtained, strings are made, mattress are made. In short, every part of the coconut is used.
  • 200-250 C temperature * 150 cm rainfall
  • First grown in nursery and later get them planted in plantation.
  • Production – India is at 3rd place after Indonesia and Philippines. Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka are leading states. 85% area, 80% production is obtained from these states. Kerala is the leading producer. Mumbai, Kolkata and Kocchi are important export centres.
  1. Spices – India is the largest producer, consumes and exporter of spices. Diversity in climate, allow the growth of all kinds of spices. Here Tropical Black Pepper and Temperate ‘Kesar’ are grown. 90% of spices are consumed locally and 10% is exported.
  • Heavy Competition in World Market – Low production and high production cost is the reason because of which India is logging behind in the production of Black pepper, Cardamom, ginger. So what is required is increase in production, lowering the cost of production and improvement in quality. In Kerala and other states, the emphasis should be laid on growing the spices in coconut and other plantations. Likewise coffee and tea plantations should be used to grow black pepper.
  • Black Pepper – This is bush which is grown on the trees (Mango, Areca nut). Hot, wet climate is required. 100-300 C temperature, 150-200 cm rainfall. The plant gave a plenty of fruits after 3 years. The raw fruits are aried in sunlight. Kerala is the leading state.
  • Chillies - 100-300 C temperature, 60-125 cm rainfall. Half of the chillies of world are produced in India. Most of the part is locally consumed and 7% is exported.
  • Turmeric – Andhra is the leading producer.
  • Ginger – Nagaland (18%), Meghalaya (13%) are the leading producers.
  • Cardamom – 57% is produced in Karnataka and 31% in Kerala.
  • Clove – Kottayam (Kerala), Nilgiri (Tamil Nadu) are important regions.
  • Cinnamon – Malabar and Nilgiri hills are important centres.
  • Areca nut – India is leader in production with Karnataka is leading producer.
  1. Fruits – India is at 2nd place in fruit production (90%)
  • Mango – India leads, UP is the leading state.
  • Banana – Maharashtra is leading state. Jalgaon district is leading producer (80%).
  • Cashew Nut – Maharashtra is leading state. Ratnagiri is leading district. India is leader in Cashew export. Cashew farming had 5 lakh women’s from low income category.
  • Guava is called the ‘Apple of Poor’. Apple is grown in hilly areas. In Amarkantak and Panchmadu, there is also scope of apple production.
  1. Vegetables – China – First * India – Second
  • Potato – UP is the leading state. Farukkhabad is leading district. West Bengal is at 2nd
  • Onion – China – First * India – Second
  • Maharashtra is leading state. Gujarat is 2nd. Nasik, Pune and Satara are important centres. Onion is important vegetable for export.

Agriculture Related Activities

Dairy - India leads in milk production. Buffalo Milk 55%, Cow Milk 40%, Goat Milk 4%. UP is leading state in milk production.

  1. Milch Breeds – Gir, Sahiwaal are important Breeds 2. Draught Breeds – Nagori, Malwi, Hallikar
  2. General Breeds – Haryana, Ongal, Gavlo, Rath, Dangi, Nimadi, Kankrail are important.
  • More than half of the Worlds Buffalos are found in India. UP had maximum number. Important breeds are Murrah, Bhadavari, Jaffrabadi, Surti, Mahsana, Nagpuri, Neeli, Pandhurpuri are important breeds.

White Revolution – The increase in milk production considerably is known as ‘White Revolution’. Because of this India is leading milk producer. The beginning of white Revolution begin in 1970 from Operation flood-I Scheme. National Dairy Development Programme started. National Dairy Grid supplies milk and milk products from high production area to other parts. The key for success of white Revolution is breed improvement and adopting modern techniques. Co-operative committees had active participation in that. Government is trying to spread the Amul Co-operative model over 60%.

Sheep-Goat Rearing – Maximum Goats are in West Bengal. Major Breeds are –

* Angora – Kashmir, Haryana and Himachal Pradesh                         * Jamuna Pari – Yamuna-Chambal, Doab

* Barbari – West UP, Delhi, Haryana                                          

* Marwadi, Mehsana, Kathiawaadi, Jalwaadi – Rajasthan, Gujarat, MP

* Surti – Gujarat, Maharashtra

* Nubian, Alpine, Saanen, Togenberg are important foreign goat breeds.

* In India, maximum sheeps are in Andhra Pradesh. After that Rajasthan and Karnataka are there. In the wool production, Rajasthan is 1st. India wool is of poor quality, so it is imported. Himalayan sheep’s are good for ‘Shawl’ and ‘Pashmina’.