Primary Sector Activities

Date: December 13, 2014

Primary Sector : Activities


  1. Nomadic Herding (Pastoral Nomadism) – Along with animals, the wandering of the human community in search of fodder and water is Nomadic Herding. By this economic activity they gain food, water and shelter.

   * Grazing grounds and water is necessary                                                                          * Natural grass is also required

   * Here the animal rearing, grazing are accompanied by harsh climate.

Regions – 1. Sahara desert, East African coastal regions, Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, West China and Mongolia are major places of Nomadic tribes.

  1. Southern boundary of Tundra Region.
  2. South West Africa and West Madagascar, Masai tribe of East Africa (Kenya, Tanzania) is popular in pastoral nomadism.


  1. Commercial Animal Grazing – The animals are reared on extensive grasslands, with the help of fodder crops permanently. The main objective is to increase the income.

      Location factors – * Temperate grasslands                      * Uniformity of climate

                                     * Permanent grazing grounds                              * Use of latest technology


  • Parries of North America, Papas of Argentina, Brazil, Llanos of Venezuela, Veldts of South Africa , Downs (Australia), Kentbury plains (New Zealand).
  • Australia had half of the World sheep and half of the wool production.
  • Dairy in New Zealand, Taranaki plain (North Island) is famous for its milch cow.


Forests and Related Activities

  1. Equatorial Forests - 50N – 50S of Equator,Congo Basin, Amazon basin, Malaysia and Indonesia are major regions. These are called ‘Selvas’ in Amazon valley. Mahogany, Rosewood, Ebony are important trees.
  2. Monsoon Forests – Central India, North-East India, India-China (South-East Asia) and North-East Australia are the regions included. Sal, Teak, Sesame, Bamboo, Rubber, Cinchona, Sandal, Mahogany are also found.
  3. Temperate Deciduous Hardwood forests – 300-600 North-South, Located in the North of Monsoon forests because of presence of high amount of Hardwood, these are referred as Temperate hardwood forests. Major regions are central and west Europe, North-East of USA, South Russia, Central America, East Asia (China, Japan, Korea).

Oak, Mulberry, Eucalyptus, Birch, Maple, Olive are important species.

  1. Temperate Coniferous Forest (Taiga) – 500-700 North, Extended from East to West in a big region. Canada, Scandinavia, Baltic Nations, Siberia and Mountains of 1500-2000 m. are also included. So these are found in Alps and Himalayas. These are found in Southern Chile. There leaves are pointed and trees are in conical shape. So these are also called coniferous forests. They are soft wood forests. They are used in paper, pulp and Rayan industries. Cedar, Fur, Hemlock, Redwood are important trees.
  2. Pygmies of Congo (Zaire) – 30N- 30S in central African forests. In Zaire (Congo) valley ‘Ituri Pygmi’ are found. Best Pygmies are found till Uganda. They are dwarf and black and some are of 90 cm height. Due to tropical Wet Equatorial climate, they are found in Evergreen forests. Soil is infertile and affected by leaching. There is no agriculture land and the conditions are adverse for human growth.

Food – They are mainly depended upon hunting. They also hunt elephants and eat flesh after heating it in fire. They catch fish. They eat insects, ants, honey bee, honey also. Banana is also their food.

  • They wear leaves, skin of animals.
  • They had no permanent houses and resides in hut on trees.
  • Arrow and spears are their main instruments for hunting. They catch fish with the help of threads.
  • Pygmies are now getting cultured and leaving their traditional way of living. But still most of the Pygmies are hiding in forests as they are afraid of ‘humans’. There number is also decreasing.