Dynasties of South India

Date: December 10, 2014

                    Dynasties of South India           

 

Deccan             South of Narmada                               North of Tungabhadra

Deep south       –          South of Tungabhadra

Chalukyans – Four dynasties

  1. Early chalukyans of Vatapi (Badami), also called Western Chalukyas
  2. Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi (Andhra Pradesh)
  3. Later Chalukyas (After Rashtrakutas)
  4. Chalukyas – Solanki of Gujarat (these were not related with Chalukyans of Deccan)

Early chalukyans of Vatapi (Badami) – First capital – Dharapuri

  • Founder – Pulkeshin I (performed Ashwamedha Yajna)
    • Kirtiverman I - took the title of ‘Prithvivallabh’ first builder of Vatapi.
    • Construction of Cave temples at Badami began
    • Mangalesh – Construction of Badami complete
    • Pulkeshin II

   ¨ Defeated Kadambaas, whose capital was Banvasi.

¨ Aihole Inscription (by Ravikirti), belongs to him, written in Southern Brahmi Script and language is Sanskrit.

¨ Defeated Vishnukundin dynasty (of Pisthpur, Andhra Pradesh) and appointed Vishnuwardhan as Viceroy who took the advantage of struggle between Chalukyans and Pallavas and declared his independence and thus began the founder of Eastern Chalukyans.

¨ Chalukya-Pallava struggle began (Pallava ruler Mahendravarman I)

¨ Sent embassy to Persian monarch Khushroo (depiction in Ajanta caves)

                  Chalukyas                                                   Pallavas

      Pulkeshin (609 – 642 A.D.)                               Mahendravarman

                                                                              Narsinghvarman I Mahamall (630-668)

                                                                              ‘Vatapikonda’

      Vikramaditya I (655-681)                                 

                                                                              Mahendravarman II

      (Rajmalla)                                                        Parmeshvar Varman I

   (Kanchikonda)                                                          

 

  • Vikramaditya I (Kanchikonda, Rajmalla)

¨ Lokeshwar temple (Virupaksha) – by wife Lokmahadevi     both at Pattadakkal

¨ Trilokeshwar – Trailokya Mahadevi (wife)

  • Kirtiverman II (745 – 747 A.D.) - the last ruler.

 

Later Chalukyas of Kalyani

  • Tailap II (973-997) – First ruler, First Capital – Manyakhet

¨ Someshwar I – Manyakhet to Kalyani

  • War of Koppam – Someshwar & Rajendra II
  • He cannot defeated only Cholas otherwise he is success.
  • Vikramaditya VI (1076-1026 A.D.) -   1076 Chalukya–Vikram–Era

¨ Vikrampur town was founded                                   ¨ Temple of God Vishnu

¨ Lake                                                                        ¨ Vilhana (Court poet) – Vikramankdev Rachit

¨ Vigyaneshwar – Mitakshara

  • Someshwar III – Wrote Mansollas (a book on art)

Vengi’s Eastern Chalukya

Founder – Vishnuvardhan

 

  • Vijayaditya III (Greatest Monarch)
  • Vijayaditya VII (last)


Culture

  • No mention of council of Ministers in inscriptions
  • Mahasandhivigrahak, Vishayapati, Gramakute, Mahattaradhikarin (all Central Officers)
  • Gamund (Village officer) was appointed by the Central Government
  • Udranga (a tax or using market space) Parikar (Chungi)
  • Chalukyan rulers were addict of knowledge – Huentsang and for the
  • Pandit Udaidev (Jain) wrote Jainendra Vyakaran
  • Somdev Suri – Yasastilakchampu, Niti Vakyamrit
  • Kingship hereditary and used to visit different part of his empire. Queens were quite important they used to accompany the king in the battlefield.
  • Worshipper of Lord Shiva · Dynastic emblem – Varah (boar)                       
  • Beghuti Temple (Jinendra) – Ravikirti (Pulkeshin II) · Inscriptions begin with worship of Vishnu
  • Temples - Badami, Aihole, Pattadakkal (Aihole – temple town)
  • Temples are rock cut - Vishnu temple, Ladkhan (Sun temple), Durga temple
  • Pillared rocks cut halls from Pattadakkal & Badami
  • Pattadakkal (a place of Nagar & Dakshini  both the styles)

       ë Virupaksha temple                     ëSangmeshwar

  • Ajanta caves belong to this period
               
         
   
         
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                         Dravid            Gopuram                                                                            

                                                      

            Nagar

Tripartite Struggle

Rashtrakuta – Pratihara - Pala

 I                      Pratihara                                      Pala                                           Rashtrakuta

                       Vatsaraja                                   Dharmapala                             Dhruva       (8th century)

 
   

 

 

II                   Vatsaraja                                    Dharmapala                  Govind III

                   Nagabhatta II

 

III            Rambhadra                           Devpala                       Krishna II

                Mihirbhoja I

                                                     

                                                            Vigrahapala

 

                                      (Kannauj was occupied by Mihirbhoaja I)

                                                           

IV                  Mahipala I                                                             Indra III

                                                                                                 Krishna III

History of Border States

 

Kashmir

 

                                                Karkota Dynasty                       ë Founder – Dhurlabhvardhan

                                                  (7th Century)                               (Vrajaditya) Chandrapeed

                                                                                                    (Udyaditya) Tarapeed

                                                                                                    (Lalitaditya) Muktapeed

                                                                                                    (Bhartanda Temple)

Utpal Dynasty

 

           

               (9th Century)                    Avantivarman                           (Avantipur) Suyya (Engineer Canals)

                                                      Queen Didda – Death (1003 AD)

 

Lohar Dynasty

 

Sangramraaj

 

                                                                             

                                                                  He helped Shahi Dynasty against Mahmood Ghaznavi

 

 

 

            Kalash                                      Wicked King

            Harsha                                      Kalhan was his dependent poet

 

Bangal Pal Dynasty (Buddhist)

  • Gopal (was elected) (8th century) (750-770)
  • Dharampala (Tripartite struggle began) Haribhadra was his poet laureate
  • Founded Vikramsheela, Sompuri (Paharpur), Bihar
  • Devpala (The greatest king)
  • Odantpuri · He donated five villages to Shailendra King of Java for the purpose of construction                                                    of Vihara in Nalanda University
  • Mahipal I
  • Defeated by Chola King Rajendra I · Also destroyed Vikramsheela by Bakhtiyaar Khilji

 

Bengal (Sena Dynasty, Shaivites)

 

  • Nadiya (Capital) (Dynasty of learned Monarchs)
  • Veersena · Vijayasena (First Important Ruler) (11th Century)       · Shiva Temple of Devpara
  • Balaalsena (intellectual monarch)
  • Wrote Danasagar and Adhbutsagar             · Anirudha was his Guru
  • Lakshmansena (the last king)
  •  Court poet Shri Dhardas (wrote Saduktikarnamrita)                       · Jayadeva (Gitgovind)             · Dhoyi (Pavandoot)
  • Halayudha (Brahamansarvasva)  - Prime Minister – Chief Justice                · Appreciated by  Minhaaz-us-Siraaj

Assam (Kamrup) – (Varman Dynasty)

  • Pushyavarman (Founder) (5th Century) – Pragyajyotishpur (Capital) (Modern Gauhati)
  • Bhaskarvarman (Harsha’s Friend)
  • Welcomed Huientsang · Encouraged Huientsang to translate Laotse’s Book

Sindha (Capital – Alor)

1- Raya Dynasty (Sudra’s)                     2- Chach Dynasty (Brahmins)

                                                Ruler Dahir defeated by Mohammad Bin Qasim who was helped by Buddhists

Pallav (Kanchi) (Vaishnav)

Founder – Singhverma

  • Singhvishnu (575 – 600)
  • Varah Temple – Mammalpur · Bharvi – Kiratajurnaniyak (Court poet)
  • Mahendraverman I (Mantvilaas, Vichitrachitra, Gurbhar) (600-630)
  • Initially Jain but became Buddhist under influence of Appar · Writer of Sangitagya, Mantvilasprahasan
  • Constructed Monolithic Temples (Brahma, Vishnu, Ishwar)       · Chitramegha Pond
  • Rudracharya (Music teacher)                                                        · Appaar (Shaivites-Naynar)
  • Narsinghverman I (630 – 668 AD) (Mammal) (Vatapikonda)
  • Very Powerful · Got help from Manavarman Sri Lankan prince (against Chalukyas)
  • Mahabalipuram (Chief port) Monolithic temple · Huientsang came Kanchi (lover of learning)
  • Mahendravarman II (668-70)
  • Parmeshvarvarman I (Lover of learning) (Shaivites) (670-700)
  • Ganesh Temple – Mammalpuram
  • Narsinghvarman II (700-728 AD)
  • Pallava – Chalukyas (struggle stopped)   · Kanchi – Kailashnath          · Shor temple - Mahabalipuram
  • Dandin – Kavyadarsha, Dashkumar Charita, Avantisundarikatha · Bhaas
  • Sent embassy to China, built Vihara in Nagapattam
  • Parmeshvarman II (Last ruler) Main branch
  • Struggle restart                                     · Got killed in the battlefield
  • Nandivarman II (Parallel branch) (elected)
  • Nandivarman III    Saint Parundevnaar – Writer of Bharatverhva

Culture

  • Title of Dharma Maharaja (King) · Council of minister’s was there & it had Amatya
  • Rashtrik (Chief officer of district), Grammojak – Village · Pranta – Rashtra or Mandala
  • Place for the assembly of Gram Sabha – Manaram · Gramkaya – Organisation of villages
  • Concept of Bhakti developed, Nainaar & Alvaar ·  ‘Devaram’ – Compilation of Bhakti Songs
  • Sundarmurti – Got the title of Ishwar Mishra
  • Other Nainars – Tirugyaan, Sambandar, Marikvachgar, Appar
  • Alvaar – Madhurkavi, Kulshekhar, Pomgai, Paye, Aandal (Stri), Tirumlisai, Tirumgai
  • Tirumgai – Stole Buddhist Statue (from monastery)
  • Architecture Mandap (Pillared Hall rock-cut)    · Ratha                      · Large temple
  1. Mahendra Style · Mandapa Panch Pandava
  2. Mammal Style 1. Mandapa · Aadi Varah Mandap                                            all in Mahabalipuram
  3. Monolithic Temple n Draupadi, Nakul-Sahdev, Bhim, Arjun, Dharmaraja (very popular)
  4. Rajsingh Style Structural Temples · Shor temple n Kanchi – Kailashnath, Baikuntha Pairumal temple
  5. Nandivarman Style Kanchi Temple · Mukteshwar, Mantgeshwar, Parsurameshwar (Guddimallam)

 

Rashtrakuta Dynasty

  • Founder – Dantidurga (757) · Rashtrakuta
  • Performed Hiranyagarbha Yagya in which Pratihar ruler served as gate keepers
  • Krishna I (756 – 773 AD)
  • Got constructed Kailash Temple of Ellore             ·  Gave grants to Brahmin
  • Govind II Dhruva (Successor)
  • Dhruva ‘Dharavarsha’ (began tripartite struggle)
  • Defected Pratihara ruler Vatsraja & Pala ruler Dharmpal
  • Govind III (793-814 AD) War between Nagabhatta (Pratihara) & Dharmapala               
  • Dharmpala asked for helped, attacked & defeated Nagabhata
  • Received ambassador from Sri Lanka
  • Amoghvarsha ( 814 – 878) (Jain Dharma), Liberal towards Hindus
  • Established Manyakhet City (Malkhed near of Hyderabad)              ·  Wrote Kavirajmarga (in Kannad language)
  • Jinsena (Darbari) – Wrote Aadipurana (Jaina)                                 ·  Mahaviracharya – Garitsarsangraha
  • Krishna II (878 – 914)
  • Defeated Pratihara King Bhoja I                              ·  Jain Aacharya Gurbhadra (Guru)
  • Indra III (914 – 929)
  • Attacked against Kannauj
  • Krishna III (939 – 867)
  • War of Takkolam (949) Cholas and Rashtruktas   
  • Temple of Gandmartandamitya and Krishneshwar (Rameshwaram) ·  Kannada poet (Ponna) (Wrote Shantipurana)
  • Karka II n Last ruler

Culture

  • Kingship – Hereditary (eldest son), titles like Dharavarsha & Akal Varsha
  • Advise of Council of Ministers carried weight                        · Feudal system
  • Unit -    Nation (directly ruled region were divided in Rashtras)

                                    (Rashtrapati)

                        Vishaya (District) (Vishayapati)

 

                        Bhukti (Tehsil) (Bhogpati)             Grama (Head of armed band)                        Lekhakaar (Assistant)

  • Deshgram Kuta (Revenue officer-Hereditary) (Tax free land in lieu of salary)

City, Village (autonomy)

  • Every eldest in the family is the member of Gram Samiti (Mahattar)
  • Landtax (Udrang, Bhogkar), ¼ Grains

Ellora – Hindu Guha temple

  • Kailash Temple (Krishna I) (Monolithic) · Dasavtaar (Dantidurga), Neelkantha Temple

 

 


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