Date: December 10, 2014
Early Harappan Cultures :
- Kulli Culture (Sindh region)
- Amri Nal Culture (Sindh region)
- Queta Culture (Queta valley)
- Jhob Culture (North Baluchistan)
- Sothi Culture (Rajasthan)
Time Period 2300 – 1750 B.C.
City / Site River
Bhagvat rao Kim river
Raw Materials Place of Import
Tin Afghanistan, Iran
Copper Rajasthan, Baluchistan
Silver Iran, Afghanistan
Lapis, Lazulli Afghanistan, Persia, Karnataka, Badakhsan
Lead S. India, Iran
Stealite Baluchistan, Rajasthan, Gujarat
- Amri, Kalibangan, Kotdiji were present in early Harappan phase
- Drainage system of Banawali is not up to the mark.
- Brick size ratio – 8 : 4 : 1 (largest in size); 4 : 2 : 1 (most popular) 5 : 2 : 1 (smallest in size)
- L type bricks were used at corners
- Curved bricks from Chanhudaro Decorated bricks from Kalibangan
- Walls based on English bond system. Plough model from Mohanjodaro & Banawali
- Sites to store grains from Harappa Ur (Mesopotamiya) – Vanity Box (Harappan)
- Sumarian boat – Mohanjodaro
- A plant emerging from the womb of a female (seal from Harappan)
- Etched bead (Mesopotamian) – from Harappa
- Cylindrical seal (Mesopotamian) – Mohanjodaro
- Weights and measure – Binary (for lower denomination), Decimal (for higher denomination)
- Vanity box – from Harappa
- Dice and chess – Lothal
- Proto-Austroloid, Mongoloid, Alpine, Mediterranean (Maximum in No.)
- Mohanjodaro – Stupa Mound Cat chased by dog – Chanhudaro
- Story of clever fox and crow – Lothal Ivary combs – Kalibangan
- Fire allows – Kalibangan, Banawali & Lothal Kalibangan – Houses of unbaked bricks
- Seals of composite animals also found (Gilgameesh)
- Dockyard – Ratio 6 : 1
- Pet (dog) buried with its master – Ropar (Also the first place to be discovered after independence)
- Horse evidence – Surkotda (bones), Lothal (bones), Kalibangan (bones), Dholaveera (bones), Mohanjodaro (Model)
- Scales – Mohanjodaro Foot ( 37. 6) Cubit ( 51.8)
- Statue (Lost Wax technique)
- Script – Right to left, Boustrophedon (right to left and then left to right), Pictographic
- Joint Burials – Lothal, Kalibangan Matriarchal Society
- Tree most depicted – Peepal
Archeological Sources – OCP (Ochre Coloured Pottery), three sites from Punjab and Bhagwanpura from where a house containing 13 rooms has been found.
- Kassite inscription of the year 1600 B.C. which tells about migration of one of the branches of the Aryans from Iran to India.
- Boghajkoi (Mitanni) inscription of the year 1400 B.C. mentioning a treaty between Hittite and Mitanni Kings mentioning Rig Vedic Gods Indra, Mitra, Varuna & Nasatya as witness to the treaty.
Literally Sources – Rigved for early vedic and for later vedic period Yajurveda, Samveda and Artharvaveda in that order.
- Rigveda comprises of ten Mandalas having 1028 ‘Suktas’ & divided in three parts -
Sakala – 1017 Suktas Balkhilya – 11 Vashkal – 56 (now not available)
The core area of Rigvedic period was ‘Saptsaindhava’. With material progress focus of culture shifted towards East. New regions being Brahmarshi Desha, Brahmvartha, Madhya Desha, Aryavarta in that order.
River name (Previously) River name (Presently)
Gomti Gomal (Afghanistan)
Vedic Society – Initially, pastoralism was main occupation. Importance of cattle wealth is evident from excessive use of the word ‘Gau’ (Cow). King - Gopati for time – Godhuli, for distance – Gavyatu,
for rich man – Gomat, for daughter – Duhitta, for Cow – Aghanya, for guest – Goghana and for battle – Gavishti
In this period we find cattle and female slaves as part of the wealth, but land was not considered as wealth because of Nomadic character of Vedic people. We don’t find the mention of tiger, elephant but horse & cow were two most important animals.
They knew art of agriculture but it was not practiced on a wide scale. Aryans had knowledge of seasons, crops specific to different seasons, agriculture implements etc. They used word ‘Yava’ for grains which seemed to be indicative of all the grains known to them. But rice was not known to them.
Urvara – Tilled field Karishu – Fertilizer Sthavi – Grain pit
Langal – Furrow Sita – Furrow marks Urdara - Pot used to measure grain
Kivaash – Furrow man Kulya – Canal Parjanya – Clouds
Rigvedic people knew about five seasons and we know that Ashwin taught Manu how to plough a field. Apala (learned lady) prays for her fathers prosperity. Though slavery was known to them but use of slaves was restricted to house hold purposes only.
Crafts – Rigvedic people knew metals such as gold, copper, bronze but not iron. The word ‘Ayas’ is indicative of copper and not iron. They knew various crafts in wood, leather, cotton and wool. Weaving was an art popular among ladies and those ladies were known as ‘Siri’.
Carpenters - Takshana Loome – Tasar Weaver – Tantuvaya Doctor – Bhishaka
Trade was known to them and it was taken both on water and on land. Though word ‘Samudra’ was known to them but it simply meant a huge water body and not a sea. Trade was taken by ‘Panis’ who were considered as Non Aryans. Trade was facilitated by development of various crafts. For exchange ‘Nishq’ and ‘Shatman’ were used but in general there were no coins and batter system was prevalent and unit must have been a cow, for everything was valued in terms of a cow. Money was given on interest and person involved in such a activity was known as ‘Vakenat’
King was the head and was elected from the members of the clan. Kingship was hereditary, sometimes king was elected too. He was assisted by Purohit, Senani. Other officers were –
Brajpati – Incharge of grasslands Spash – Spy Palagal – Messenger
Purap – Incharge of fort Gramini – Head of a village
The oldest institution was ‘Vidatha’, which was General Assembly attended by all. Samiti was like Rajya Sabha of today but women were not allowed to participate in its proceedings, while Sabha was like Lok Sabha of today and women were part of it. Both jointly were called two daughters of ‘Prajapati’.
Social Life – Vasa, Adhivasa and Nivi, all were clothes. Nishq was an ornament. Gents used to keep beards and moustaches. Ladies used to keep their hairs in different styles. People were both vegetarian and non-vegetarian. Meat of cow was generally forbidden but she could be killed to welcome a guest (Atithi) and hence Atithi was known as ‘Goghana’ and cow ‘Aghanya’. They knew the use of milk and its various products. Soma was considered a sacred drink consumed at the time of sacrifices while Sura was an intoxicating drink consumed generally. For recreation they had various means such as music (vocal as well as instrumental, such as dhol, veena, bansuri), dance, hunting, dice and chariot race. They were aware about their health and for diseases word ‘Yakshma’ was used. Ashwins were considered divined physicians.
Religion – They worshipped nature in its human form. Multi Gods, Male gods were more important. The practice of praising every God as highest of all was prevalent and it is known as Henotheism. Gods were divided into three categories – 1. Space Gods – Indra, Varuna, Rudra, Maruta, Vayu, Vivastha, Yama and Aditi.
- Sky Gods – Ashwin, Poshan, Dyaus, Surya (in all its six forms such as Adiya, Savitra, Mitra, Aryavan, Daksha and Ansha)
- Earth Gods – Agni, Som, Brahaspati, Matarashwin.
Though they worshipped various Gods but still at the closing of Rig Vedic they were moving towards Monotheism i.e. Ekeshwarwad.