Madan Mohan Malviya and his contributions

Date: December 25, 2014

Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya- The Man, The Spirit, The Vision



The Government of India announced BHARAT RATNA award for M.M.Malviya on Dec.25,2014.

 Madan Mohan Malaviya was born in an educated orthodox Hindu family at Prayaga (Allahabad) in 1861 on December 25, he  is recognized as an outstanding and noble son of India.



He was  a great patriot, an educationist with a vision, a social reformer, an ardent journalist, reluctant but effective lawyer, a successful parliamentarian and an outstanding statesman. Among Malaviyaji's many achievements, the most monumental was the establishment of the Banaras Hindu University or Kashi Hindu Vishvavidyalaya. In the course of his lifetime Banaras Hindu University came to be known as a Capital of Knowledge acknowledged across India and the World. . He started composing poetry at the age of fifteen with the pen name 'Makarand'. He established "Hindu Samaj" in 1880.


Making of the Banaras Hindu University:-


 Pt. Madan Mohan Malaviya was greatly inspired by Dr. Annie Besant, an Irish lady, who came to India with motive of spreading Educational Programmes. She started Central Hindu College at Kamachha in the city of Varanasi in 1889, which became the nexus of the Banaras Hindu University later on. Pandit ji, with help of the then Maharaja of Banaras, Sri Prabhu Narain Singh ji, proposed to establish the University named the Banaras Hindu University in 1904. In the year 1905, this proposal got the sanction of several Hindu organizations. On 31st Dec. 1905, in the Town Hall of Varanasi, under the chairmanship of Sri D. N. Mahajan, the proposal was finally approved.

 In 1911, in the association of Dr. Annie Besant, a resolution was passed to establish "Kashi Vishva Vidyalaya", and on 28 Nov. 1911, a society was formed to begin the work for the Banaras Hindu University. On March, 25, 1915, Sir Hurcourt Butler proposed a bill in the Imperial legislation Council for the establishment of the University. On Oct. 01, 1915, the B.H.U. Act was passed.

      On Feb. 4th, 1916, i.e. Magh Shukla Pratipada, samvat 1972, the foundation of the Banaras Hindu University was laid down. A grand ceremony was organised to celebrate the occasion in which several eminent personalities of India, were present.

 Great minds and personalities like Annie Besant, Mahatma Gandhi, Rabindranath Tagore, Shyama Charan De and many others joined hand with him in his quest for knowledge, arousing the national spirit in India and winning freedom with the power of education and righteousness.


Social Works of Mahamana:-


Pt. Madan Mohan Malaviya was the founder of several organisation and edited magazines of high standard in order to promote Hindu ideals of Sanatan Dharma, and to build India as a strong and developed country in the world. For this purpose, he founded "Prayaga Hindu Samaj", and wrote served articles on the Contemporary issues and problems of the country. In 1884, he became the member of 'Hindi Uddharini Pratinidhi Sabha'. In 1885, he edited 'Indian Union' English weekly. In 1887, he established "Bharata Dharma Mahamandal", to propagate Sanatan Dharma and Hindu culture. He was editor of 'Hindustan'. In 1889, he edited 'Indian Opinion'. In 1891, he become barrister and started practicing at Allahabad High Court. He pleaded successfully for many significant cases during these days.

He left the law practice in 1913 and decided to serve the nation for attaining freedom from British rule. Mahamana was keenly interested to help the students for better learning and living and for this sake he arranged to build a Hostel named 'MacDonnell Hindu Hostel' at Allahabad, and in 1889, he also established there a library.

He remained a member of municipality at Allahabad till 1916 and he was also an honoured member of Indian National Congress for several years.

In 1907, on the day of "Vasanta Panchami" he started a weekly in Hindi, entitled 'Abhyudaya'. He was also instrumental in bringing out an English Daily called 'Leader' in 1909.

Malaviya passed away in 1946. But his spirit still lives and there are many who bear the torch that he lit, Many more stand ready to shoulder the mantle of his responsibility.


Major points to be memorized about Malaviya Ji’s Life:-

  • 2nd Congress in Calcutta under chairmanship of Dadabhai Nouroji. Speech on the issue of representation in Councils
  • Editorship of the Hindosthan in Kalakankar. Founding conference of Bharat Dharma Mandal
  • Construction of Hindu Boarding House in Allahabad
  • Service to province as member of Provincial Council
  • Convened Sanatan Dharma Mahasabha on Kumbha in Allahabad. Propagation of liberal Sanatan Dharma. Decision to open university in Banaras
  • Editorship of the Abhyudaya. Propagation of Sanatan Dharma and democratic principles
  • Editorship of the English daily Leader. Chaired the Lahore Congress
  • Presidential address in 1st Conference of Hindi Sahitya Sammelan
  • Formation of the Hindu University Society
  • Formation of Prayaga Seva Samiti under his chairmanship
  • The Banaras Hindu University Bill passed
  • Formation of Scout Association by Seva Samiti
  • Chaired Annual Congress Conference in Delhi
  • Debate on the Rowlett Bill in Council. Resignation from Council
  • Vice Chancellor, B.H.U.
  • Chaired Hindi Sahitya Sammelan in Bombay
  • Formation of Congress Independent Party with Lala Lajpat Rai
  • Took part with Gandhi in the London Round Table Conference
  • Formation of All India Swadeshi Union in Banaras
  • Nominated President of Delhi Congress. Arrested
  • As Calcutta Congress President arrested in Asansole
  • Appointed life Rector of BHU
  • Founded Goraksha Mandal

Suggested question for mains-  Discuss the cotributions of Madan Mohan Malviya during freedom struggle and also evaluate his role in formation of Modern India? (200 words)