Date: December 11, 2014
- First centralised Administration -
ëKing ë Mantrinar (48,000 Pana Annual) ë Mantriparishad – were chosen after examination Upadha Parikshan (12,000 Pana)
- Thirthas – 18 in number
- Prime Minister and Purohit – During Chandragupta’s time were held by Kautilya, continued till Bindusara replaced by Kallatak, Radhagupta was Prime Minister of Ashoka.
- Samaharta – Revenue
- Senapati – War minister
- Sannidhata – Treasure keeper
- Yuvraj – Heir opponent
- Pradishta – Judge of criminal court (Kantakshodhana)
- Nayak – leader of army in a battle
- Karmantik – incharge of industries
- Vyavharik – Civil judge (Dharmsthaniya)
- Mantriparishaddhyaksha – head of Mantriparishad
- Dandapala – Garrison officer
- Antapala – frontier forts
- Durgapala – Country forts
- Nagarak – Head of a city
- Prashasta – Record keeper of royal decrees
- Dauvarik – Palace officer
- Antarvaishik – head of royal body guards
- Atvika – forest officer
Adhiyaksha – 26 in numbers, Megasthenese calls them Magistrate (Salary 1000 Panas) –
- Panyadhyaksha – commerce
- Suradhyaksha – Excise
- Sunadhyaksha – Butcheries
- Ganikadhyaksha – Head of Ganikas
- Sitadhyaksha – Royal of agricultural land
- Akaradhyaksha – Mines
- Kosthagardhyaksha – Wood work
- Kupadhyaksha – Forest Department
- Ayudhagaradhyaksha – Weapon
- Shulkadhyaksha - Custom
- Shutradhyaksha – Weaving
- Lohadhyaksha – Metals
- Lakshanadhyaksha – Mint, & every mint was under a Sauvarnika
- Godhyaksha – Cattle wealth
- Vivitadhyaksha – Pastures. other assignment included digging of wells, ponds and to protect passenger from forests
- Mudradhyaksha – Passport
- Navadhyaksha – Naval
- Pattanadhyaksha – Port
- Sansthadhyaksha – Trade routes
- Devtadhyaksha – Religious institute
- Pautvadhyaksha – weights & measures
- Manadhyaksha – Distance & time
- Ashwadhyaksha – Horses
- Hastyadhyaksha – Elephants
- Suvarnadhyaksha – Gold
- Aksharpataladhyaksha – Comptroller & Auditor General
- Head – Viceroy (Kumar or Aryaputra) Mantriparishad (More Powerful)
- Provincial Council of Minister had direct relation with the Center –
Avanti Rashtra Ujjain
Administrative Hierarchy –
Centre (King was the Head)
Province (Main Officer ‘Kumar’ or Aryaputra)
Mandal (Commissioner) – Chief Pradesta or Pradeshik
Aahar or Vishaya (District) - Head Vishayapati or Sthanik
Sthaniya (Groups of 800 villages)
Dronamukha (Groups of 400 villages)
Kharvatik (Groups of 200 villages)
Sangrahana (Groups of 10 villages) – the main officer was Gopa
Village (Headed by Gramani)
City Administration – Megasthenese describes about administration of Patliputra which was headed by Astronomoi, while district was headed by Agronomoi (Road Construction). Patiliputra was administered by a Council of 30 members which was organised into 6 committees each having 5 members.
- First Committee – Art and Craft 2. Second Committee – About foreigners
- Third Committee – on population 4. Fourth Committee – on industries
- Fifth Committee – market control 6. Sixth Committee – Tax
Other Important Officers include -
- Amatya – Mantrinaha, Mantriparishad and Departmental heads all were selected from this group
- Agramatya – Prime Minister, Vishnugupta was Prime Minister of Chandragupta and Bindusaar, while Ashoka’s Prime Minister was Radhagupta.
- Mahamatya – Sometimes of important cities
- Pradeshtha – Chief officer of Mandal, sometimes head of criminal court
- Roopdarshaka – Controlled currency circulation
- Sauvarnika – Officer of a mint who assisted Lakshanadhyaksha
- Vyavaharika – head of civil court
- Cyrus II was the first invader
- Darius I or Dara conquered the North West part of India and made it 20th province of his kingdom
- Herodotus (Father of History) computes in come from this province to the tune of 360 Talents.
- It also resulted into development of a new script i.e. Kharosthi.
Alexander Invasion (326 B.C.) -
- Battle of Jhelum (Vitasta) was fought between Alexander and Porus
- Ambhi the ruler of Taxila concludes a treaty with Alexander
Impact – · No long term impact in political sphere.
- On the basis of Greek coins Uluka style of coins were minted.
- Nicaiya (Vijayanagar) & Bouchephela (on the name of Alexander’s horse) were the two cities establish by Alexander.
- It became a starting point for future historical reference
Haryanka Dynasty (Patricidal) 544 – 412 B.C.
- Founded by Bimbasaar (Shrenika) who ruled till 492 B.C., sent his physicians Jeevaka to Chandrapradyota the ruler of Avanti to cure Jaundice. He defeated Aanga ruler Brahmadatta, founded the city of Rajgriha, used matrimonial relation to strengthen his position by marrying Princesses of Madra, Koshala & .
Ajaatsatru (492-460 B.C.) – · Defeated Koshal and Vaishali, constructed a Stupa in Rajgriha and first Buddhist Council held during his reign at Rajgriha in the year 483 B.C., the year of Buddha’s Mahaparinirvana.
Udayin (462 – 444 B.C.) - Founded Patliputra.
- The last ruler of this dynasty was Darshaka who was killed by his Amatya Shishunaag and Public got him seated on the throne.
Shaishunaag Dynasty (412 – 344 B.C.) – Founded by Shishunaag who conquered Avanti and shifted capital from Patliputra to Vaishali.
- Next ruler was Kalashoka (Kakavarna) re-shifted capital to Patliputra, second Buddhist council held at Vaishali during his reign.
Nanda Dynasty (344 – 324 B.C.) – Founded by Mahapadmanand who conquered Kalinga and dug a canal in Kalinga, took the title Ekrata or Ekshatra. He was the first historical imperial ruler. Panini the author of ‘Asthadhayi’ was his friend.
Dhanananda – Last ruler, was Jain, invasion of Alexander. Varsha, Upvarsha, Varruchi and certain other scholar belong to his period.