Hemorrhagic Fever

Date: January 22, 2015

ELISA haemorrhagic fever

Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever

Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a widespread disease caused by a tick-borne virus (Nairovirus) of the Bunyaviridae family. The CCHF virus causes severe viral haemorrhagic fever outbreaks, with a case fatality rate of 10–40%.

CCHF is endemic in Africa, the Balkans, the Middle East and Asian countries south of the 50th parallel north – the geographical limit of the principal tick vector.

Key facts

 -The Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus causes severe viral haemorrhagic fever outbreaks.
 -CCHF outbreaks have a case fatality rate of up to 40%.
 -The virus is primarily transmitted to people from ticks and livestock animals. Human-to-human transmission can occur resulting from  close contact with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected persons.
- CCHF is endemic in Africa, the Balkans, the Middle East and Asia, in countries south of the 50th parallel north.
 -There is no vaccine available for either people or animals.

Diagnosis

CCHF virus infection can be diagnosed by several different laboratory tests:

-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) ;
-antigen detection;
-serum neutralization;
-reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay; and
-virus isolation by cell culture.

Why in News-

The Health Ministry has sounded an alert in Gujarat and Rajasthan of a possible Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) outbreak.
This comes in the wake of medical officials in Jodhpur reporting high grade fever in five functionaries working in a private hospital.


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