Vector Borne Diseases in India
Vector Borne Diseases in India
Date: March 12, 2015
National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP) Kyasanur forest disease Kala-Azar Filaria Chikungunya Japanese Encephalitis (JE)
Vector Borne Diseases
Vectors are organisms that transmit pathogens & parasites from one infected humans/animals to another, causing serious diseases in populations. These diseases are commonly found in tropical & sub-tropical regions and places where access to safe drinking-water and sanitation systems is not properly available.
Vector Borne Diseases in India- There are many vector-borne diseases prevalent in India like malaria, filariasis, Kyasanur forest disease, Japanese encephalitis, scrub typhus, dengue and chikungunya. The control of all of them depends on an understanding of the natural cycles and epidemiology of their vectors.
Malaria is caused by a parasite called Plasmodium, which is transmitted via the bites of infected Female anopheles mosquito. In the human body, the parasites multiply in the liver, and then infect red blood cells. Symptoms of malaria include fever, headache, and vomiting, and usually appear between 10 and 15 days after the mosquito bite. If not treated, malaria can quickly become life-threatening by disrupting the blood supply to vital organs.
Dengue fever, also known as breakbone fever, is a mosquito-borne tropical disease caused by the dengue virus. Symptoms include fever, headache, muscle and joint pains, and a characteristic skin rash that is similar to measles.Dengue is transmitted by several species of mosquito within the genus Aedes, principally A. aegypti.
Japanese Encephalitis (JE)-
JE is mostly present in in Southern India, Uttar Pradesh, North Eastern states, Haryana. Its causative agent is Group B arbovirus (Flavivirus) & it is transmitted by Culex mosquitoes.
Chikungunya is a viral disease transmitted to humans by infected mosquitoes. It causes fever and severe joint pain. Other symptoms include muscle pain, headache, nausea, fatigue and rash.Joint pain is often debilitating and can vary in duration.The disease shares some clinical signs with dengue, and can be misdiagnosed in areas where dengue is common.
Filariasis is a parasitic disease caused by an infection with roundworms of the Filarioidea type.These are spread by blood-feeding black flies and mosquitoes. This disease belongs to the group of diseases called helminthiasis.
Visceral leishmaniasis also known as kala-azar, black fever is the most severe form of leishmaniasis. Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by protozoan parasites of the Leishmania genus. This disease is the second-largest parasitic killer in the world after malaria.
Kyasanur forest disease-
The Kyasanur forest disease, transmitted by ticks, and scrub typhus, transmitted by mites, are re-emerging in India.Birds and animals, both small and large and wild and domestic, are also involved in the transmission.
National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme-
The National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP) is the programme for prevention & control of these vector borne diseases as an integral part of the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) of India.
The NVBDCP envisages a self-sustained and well informed, healthy India free from vector borne diseases with equitable access to quality health care services nearest to their residences.The Programme activities are directed in a way to meet with the Millennium Development Goal of halting and reversing the incidence of malaria and other vector borne diseases by the year 2015 towards reduction of poverty.The programme aims to make the investments sustainable by developing robust systems and supporting the local capacity. It is planned to ensure that the right diagnostics and treatment are available to all people – especially the poor and disadvantaged living in tribal and rural areas.