Date: December 21, 2014
World War – II
1st September, 1939
- Vercoy Treaty – The germs of 2nd World War were contained in the treaty of vercoy concluded 1919. This treaty was based on the spirit of revenge and Germany was forced to sign the treaty at point of Bayonet. It was not only deprived of its colonies, territories and natural resources but also burdened with reparation which were beyond its capacity to pay. These elements of humiliation gave rise to the spirit of revenge and Germany started looking for an opportunity to tear off the vercoy treaty.
- Aggressive Nationalism of Germany – The desire of German leaders to make Germany a world Power and the adopt of policy of militarytrization also greatly contributed the 2nd World War. Hitler after consolidating his position embarked on the path of expansion of German Empire. He occupied Rhineland, annexed Austria and proceeded to occupy Czechoslovakia.
- Economic Depression (1929) – The Economic Depression which engulfed the world-war for some years after 1919 AD.
- Failure of League of Nations – After world War-I the League was created a view to eliminate war as an instrument of policy league suffered an early blow when USA could not join league. Even other states who accepted membership of the league showed in difference to the principle of security. Japan was the 1st country to hit the collective security system when it occupied Manchuria and attacked China. Italy occupied Ethopia in 1935 AD and Albania in 1936. In 1938 AD Germany occupied Austria & Czechoslovakia by force. The league remained silent.
- Ideological Conflict – Another basic cause of World War-II was the Ideological conflict between Fasicist States of Germany, Italy & Japan and Democratic States. Great Britain & France. The conflict was inevitable due to their different approach.
- Policy of Appeasement – The policy of Appeasement adopted by England and France towards the dictators also contributed to the World War-II.
Impact of the World War-II
Four Phases of World War – II
- 1st Sept., 1939 to 21st June, 1941 2. 22nd June, 1941 to 6th Dec., 1941 (Russia & Africa got involved) 3.7th Dec., 1941 to 7th Nov., 1942 (Pearl Harbour attack) 4. 8th Nov., 1942 to 6th May, 1945 (America’s attack on Japan)
- In the first place it caused untold destruction of men and money. It has been estimated that in this war more one & half crore people were killed on both sides. Over 1 crore people were badly wounded. As regard with the monetary losses the various nations who took part in the war spent over 1 lakh crore rupees. Britain alone suffered a loss in the vicinity of 200 crore rupees. One-fourth national wealth of Russia was spent in the war. Similarly Germany, France and Poland suffered huge loss.
- The war provided a fresh momentum to the nationalist movement in Asia & Africa and they forced the colonial power to grant them independence.
- The 2nd World War led to the emergence of United States and Soviet Union as 2 super powers.
- The World War-II led to the division of Germany. After the surrender of Germany the allies decided to divide it into 4 zones. One under each of the 4 power. USA, UK, Russia and France were the 4 powers. After sometimes England, USA & France decided to merge their zones and this part was called West Germany.