Best IAS/PCS Coaching in Lucknow

Current Affairs

Prepare IAS Coaching

Current Affairs


Date : Nov 30, 2021

Description :

Based on a News Article published in the ‘The Hindu’ on 30th November 2021 on Page Number 9


Useful for UPSC CSE Prelims and Mains (GS Paper I & II)







  • By 2050, the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) predicts that hydrogen would account for 12% of global energy consumption.
  • According to the organisation, around 66 percent of the hydrogen used must come from water rather than natural gas.
  • The 'World Energy Transitions Outlook' report was recently released by IRENA.


About Hydrogen:


  • For a cleaner alternative fuel choice, hydrogen is one of the most abundant substances on the planet.
  • The process of hydrogen production determines the type of hydrogen:
  • Green hydrogen is made by electrolyzing water with renewable energy sources (such as solar and wind) and has a lower carbon impact.
  • Water is split into hydrogen and oxygen by electricity.
  • Water and Water Vapor are by-products.
  • Brown hydrogen is made from coal, and the emissions are released into the atmosphere.
  • Grey hydrogen is made from natural gas, and the resulting emissions are released into the atmosphere.
  • The emissions from the production of blue hydrogen are absorbed using carbon capture and storage.




  • Hydrogen is an energy transporter, not an energy source, and it has the ability to transfer and store enormous amounts of energy.
  • It can be used to generate electricity or power and heat in fuel cells.
  • The most prevalent applications for hydrogen today are petroleum refining and fertiliser production, with transportation and utilities as new areas.
  • Hydrogen and fuel cells can be used to generate energy for a variety of purposes, including distributed or combined heat and power, backup power, renewable energy storage and enablement systems, portable power, and so on.
  • Hydrogen and fuel cells have the potential to minimise greenhouse gas emissions in a variety of applications due to their high efficiency and near-zero emissions operation.



Current Situation in the World:


  • Green hydrogen accounts for less than 1% of all hydrogen produced.
  • By 2050, electrolyser manufacturing and deployment will have to rise at an unprecedented rate, from the current capacity of 0.3 gigawatts to about 5,000 gigawatts.





Scenario in India:


  • Hydrogen Consumption: The manufacturing of ammonia and methanol in India's industrial sectors, such as fertilisers and refineries, consumes around six million tonnes of hydrogen every year.
  • By 2050, this might rise to 28 million tonnes, owing primarily to increased demand from industry, but also to the expansion of the transportation and power sectors.
  • Cost of Green Hydrogen: Green hydrogen is predicted to be competitive with hydrocarbon fuels by 2030. (coal, Crude Oil, natural gas).
  • As manufacturing and sales grow, the price will drop even further. India's hydrogen demand is expected to grow fivefold by 2050, with 80 percent of it coming from renewable sources.
  • Green Hydrogen Exporter: Due to its low renewable energy tariffs, India will become a net exporter of green hydrogen by 2030.




Green Hydrogen's Advantages for India:


  • Green hydrogen has the potential to accelerate India's transition to renewable energy while also combating climate change.
  • India committed to reducing its economy's emission intensity by 33-35 percent from 2005 levels by 2030 under the Paris Climate Agreement.
  • It will lessen reliance on fossil fuel imports.
  • Localizing electrolyser production and developing green hydrogen projects in India could result in a new green technologies market worth $18-20 billion and thousands of employment.
  • India has the potential to produce green hydrogen because to its favourable geographic location and abundance of sunlight and wind.
  • In industries where direct electrification is not possible, green hydrogen technologies are being encouraged.
  • Several of these industries are heavy duty, long-distance transportation, some industrial sectors, and long-term storage in the electricity industry.
  • A draught cabinet note has been published by the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) to build a hydrogen ecosystem in the country.
  • This industry's infancy enables for the establishment of regional hubs that export high-value green products as well as engineering, procurement, and construction services.




  • Economic Persistence: One of the most significant obstacles to the commercial use of hydrogen is the cost viability of green hydrogen extraction.
  • On a per-mile basis, hydrogen must be cost-competitive with conventional fuels and technology for transportation fuel cells.
  • Costs are high, and there is a lack of supporting infrastructure.
  • The cost of fuel cells, which transform hydrogen fuel into useful energy for automobiles, is still high.
  • Hydrogen station infrastructure, which is required to refill hydrogen fuel cell cars, is still in its infancy.

Initiatives undertaken so far:

  • A National Hydrogen Energy Mission (NHM) has been established in the Union Budget for 2021-22, which will lay out a roadmap for utilising hydrogen as a source of energy.
  • Renewable Energy Initiatives in India:
  • National Solar Mission of Jawaharlal Nehru (JNNSM).
  • The International Solar Alliance is a non-profit organisation that promotes solar energy generation & usage.
  • National Hybrid Wind-Solar Policy
  • Rooftop Solar Project


Next Steps:


  • Set a national goal for the capacity of green hydrogen and electrolysers: To develop a thriving hydrogen products export business in India, such as green steel, a phased manufacturing schedule should be implemented (commercial hydrogen steel plant).
  • Implement complementary solutions that produce virtuous cycles, such as hydrogen infrastructure at airports for refuelling, heating, and electricity generation.
  • Decentralized Hydrogen Generation: Decentralized hydrogen production must be encouraged by allowing renewable energy to flow freely into an electrolyser (which splits water to form H2 and O2 using electricity).
  • Finance: Policymakers must make it easier for early-stage piloting and research and development to take place in order to advance the technology for usage in India.


Tags : Hydrogen Generation, Renewable Energy Initiatives

Subscribe Daily newsletter