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Current Affairs


Date : Feb 02, 2022

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Topic à Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors


  • About the PESA Act:


  • The PESA Act of 1996 is a federal law that was enacted in 1996.
  • The Panchayats (Extension to Scheduled Areas) Act, 1996 (PESA Act) is a law created by the Indian government to ensure self-governance for people residing in India's Scheduled Areas through traditional Gram Sabhas.
  • Parliament passed it in 1996, and it went into effect on December 24, 1996.
  • In India, the PESA is regarded as the cornerstone of tribal legislation.
  • PESA acknowledges the existing decision-making structure and advocates for people's self-governance.


  • Background:


  • The 73rd constitutional amendment was passed in 1992 to enhance local self-governance in rural India. A three-tier Panchayati Raj Institution was made into legislation as a result of this modification.
  • However, under Article 243(M), its application to scheduled and tribal territories was limited.
  • The Panchayat Extension to Scheduled Areas (PESA) Act 1996 was enacted in response to the Bhuria Committee's recommendations in 1995, with the goal of providing tribal self-rule for people residing in India's scheduled areas.
  • The Gram Sabha has absolute powers under the PESA, although the state legislature has given it an advising role to ensure that Panchayats and Gram Sabhas work properly.
  • Gram Sabha's authority cannot be revoked by a higher authority, and it will maintain its independence throughout.


  • Gram Sabhas have the following powers and functions:


  • Land purchase, resettlement, and rehabilitation of displaced persons are all subject to required consultation.
  • Traditional beliefs and indigenous communities' cultures must be safeguarded.
  • Minor forest product ownership
  • Local problems are resolved.
  • Land encroachment is avoided.
  • Village market management
  • Right to regulate liquor production, distillation, and prohibition
  • Controlling money lending is a difficult task.
  • Any additional Scheduled Tribes-related rights.


  • PESA-Related Issues:


  • State governments are required to establish state laws in accordance with this national statute for their Scheduled Areas. As a result, the PESA was only partially implemented.
  • In Adivasi areas, like as Jharkhand, the partial implementation has harmed self-governance.
  • PESA failed to deliver, according to many experts, due to a lack of clarity, legal flaws, bureaucratic indifference, a lack of political will, opposition to change in the power structure, and so on.
  • According to social audits undertaken across the state, several developmental initiatives were approved on paper by Gram Sabha without any debate or decision-making taking place.


  • Source à The Hindu

Tags : PRI, rural development

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