Title : NAXALISM IN INDIA
Date : Feb 24, 2022
Based on a News Article published in the ‘The Hindu’
Useful for UPSC CSE Prelims and Mains (GS Paper III)
- The term "Naxalism" comes from the West Bengal village of Naxalbari.
- It began as a revolt against local landowners who had assaulted a peasant over a land dispute. Under the leadership of Kanu Sanyal and Jagan Santhal, the revolt began in 1967 with the goal of ensuring the rightful redistribution of land to working peasants.
- The movement began in West Bengal and has since spread throughout Eastern India, particularly in less developed areas of states such as Chhattisgarh, Odisha, and Andhra Pradesh.
- Naxals are thought to be supporters of Maoist political attitudes and ideology.
- Maoism is a communist ideology created by Mao Tse Tung. It is a strategy that combines military insurrection, public mobilization, and strategic partnerships to seize state power.
- Tribals who rely on forest products for their livelihood are barred from even harvesting a bark under the Forest (Conservation) Act of 1980.
- Massive tribal population displacement in naxalism-affected states as a result of development projects, mining operations, and other factors.
- Maoists have an easy target: Maoists recruit such persons who have no other means of subsistence into naxalism.
- Maoists supply these individuals with weapons, ammo, and money.
- Gaps in the country's socioeconomic system:
- The government gauges its success by the number of violent attacks rather than the progress made in naxal-infested areas.
- Inability to confront naxalites due to a lack of superior technological intelligence.
- Infrastructural issues, for example, several communities are still not effectively connected to any communication network.
- Administration does not follow up: It has been seen that even after the police have taken control of a region, the administration fails to deliver critical services to the residents of that region.
- There is debate on whether naxalism should be treated as a social problem or as a security danger.
- State governments see naxalism as a problem for the federal government and hence do not take any action to combat it.
- The Government's Initiatives to fight Naxalism:
- Green Hunting Operation: It began in 2010, with a major deployment of security personnel in naxal-infested areas.
- In the nine years since 2010, the number of districts plagued by naxalism has decreased from 223 to 90.
- The administration even launched a 'Relief and Rehabilitation Policy' to help naxalites reintegrate into society.
- Members of communist parties' Central Committee Politburo have either been killed or jailed.
- Launched in 2018, the Aspirational Districts Programme aims to change districts that have made very little development in important social sectors.
- The government's ongoing efforts have reduced the frequency of violent attacks in naxalism-affected areas.
- The government requires creative techniques for tracking down armed organizations in the dense forests of naxalism-affected areas.
- Local police are more familiar with a region's language and topography, and thus are more equipped to combat naxalism than the military forces.
- Andhra Pradesh Police created the 'Greyhounds,' a special unit to combat naxalism in the state.
- Two things must be ensured by the government: the security of peace-loving people and the growth of naxalism-affected areas.
- State governments must recognize that naxalism is their problem as well, and that only they can successfully combat it. I
- f necessary, they can seek assistance from the federal government.
- Although India has made considerable progress in combating naxalism, the core reasons have yet to be addressed.
- The central and state governments should stick to their two-pronged strategy of safeguarding the safety of people living in naxal-affected areas while also taking steps to develop those areas.
Tags : maoism, internal security