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Current Affairs


Date : Feb 24, 2022

Description :

Based on a News Article published in the ‘The Hindu’


Useful for UPSC CSE Prelims and Mains (GS Paper III)




India's naxalism:



  • The term "Naxalism" comes from the West Bengal village of Naxalbari.
  • It began as a revolt against local landowners who had assaulted a peasant over a land dispute. Under the leadership of Kanu Sanyal and Jagan Santhal, the revolt began in 1967 with the goal of ensuring the rightful redistribution of land to working peasants.
  • The movement began in West Bengal and has since spread throughout Eastern India, particularly in less developed areas of states such as Chhattisgarh, Odisha, and Andhra Pradesh.
  • Naxals are thought to be supporters of Maoist political attitudes and ideology.
  • Maoism is a communist ideology created by Mao Tse Tung. It is a strategy that combines military insurrection, public mobilization, and strategic partnerships to seize state power.







  • Unrest among the tribes:


  • Tribals who rely on forest products for their livelihood are barred from even harvesting a bark under the Forest (Conservation) Act of 1980.
  • Massive tribal population displacement in naxalism-affected states as a result of development projects, mining operations, and other factors.
  • Maoists have an easy target: Maoists recruit such persons who have no other means of subsistence into naxalism.
  • Maoists supply these individuals with weapons, ammo, and money.




  • Gaps in the country's socioeconomic system:


  • The government gauges its success by the number of violent attacks rather than the progress made in naxal-infested areas.
  • Inability to confront naxalites due to a lack of superior technological intelligence.
  • Infrastructural issues, for example, several communities are still not effectively connected to any communication network.
  • Administration does not follow up: It has been seen that even after the police have taken control of a region, the administration fails to deliver critical services to the residents of that region.
  • There is debate on whether naxalism should be treated as a social problem or as a security danger.
  • State governments see naxalism as a problem for the federal government and hence do not take any action to combat it.




  • The Government's Initiatives to fight Naxalism:


  • Green Hunting Operation: It began in 2010, with a major deployment of security personnel in naxal-infested areas.
  • In the nine years since 2010, the number of districts plagued by naxalism has decreased from 223 to 90.
  • The administration even launched a 'Relief and Rehabilitation Policy' to help naxalites reintegrate into society.
  • Members of communist parties' Central Committee Politburo have either been killed or jailed.
  • Launched in 2018, the Aspirational Districts Programme aims to change districts that have made very little development in important social sectors.
  • The government's ongoing efforts have reduced the frequency of violent attacks in naxalism-affected areas.






  • The government requires creative techniques for tracking down armed organizations in the dense forests of naxalism-affected areas.
  • Local police are more familiar with a region's language and topography, and thus are more equipped to combat naxalism than the military forces.
  • Andhra Pradesh Police created the 'Greyhounds,' a special unit to combat naxalism in the state.
  • Two things must be ensured by the government: the security of peace-loving people and the growth of naxalism-affected areas.
  • State governments must recognize that naxalism is their problem as well, and that only they can successfully combat it. I
  • f necessary, they can seek assistance from the federal government.
  • Although India has made considerable progress in combating naxalism, the core reasons have yet to be addressed.
  • The central and state governments should stick to their two-pronged strategy of safeguarding the safety of people living in naxal-affected areas while also taking steps to develop those areas.


Tags : maoism, internal security

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