Current Affairs

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Current Affairs

Title : 25th anniversary of the Panchayats (Extension to Scheduled Areas) Act, 1996 (PESA)

Date : Nov 21, 2021

Description :



Topic à Government strategies and interventions for development in numerous sectors are the subject of this discussion.


  • Context:


  • To commemorate the 25th anniversary of the Panchayats (Extension to Scheduled Areas) Act, 1996 (PESA), a one-day national conference on the provisions of the PESA Act was conducted as part of the Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav.


  • Background on the PESA Act:
  • The PESA Act of 1996 was enacted in 1996 by the United States Congress.
  • The Panchayats (Extension to Scheduled Areas) Act, 1996 (PESA Act) is an Indian law that ensures self-government for people living in India's Scheduled Areas through traditional Gram
  • The PESA is considered the cornerstone of tribal legislation in India.
  • PESA respects the existing decision-making framework while advocating for people's autonomy.


  • Background:
  • In 1992, the 73rd constitutional amendment was passed to improve rural India's local self-governance. As a result of this change, a three-tier Panchayati Raj Institution was enacted into law.
  • However, its application to scheduled and tribal regions was limited under Article 243(M).
  • The Panchayat Extension to Scheduled Areas (PESA) Act 1996 was passed in response to the Bhuria Committee's recommendations in 1995, with the goal of providing tribal self-rule for people living in India's scheduled areas. • The Gram Sabha has absolute powers under the PESA, though the state legislature has given it an advisory role to ensure that Panchayats and Gram Sabhas function properly.


  • Gram Sabhas are vested with the following authorities and responsibilities:
  • Consultation is essential for land purchases, relocation, and rehabilitation of displaced people.
  • Traditional beliefs and the cultures of indigenous peoples must be preserved.
  • Minor ownership of forest products
  • Local issues have been handled.
  • There is no encroachment on the land.
  • Right to regulate liquor production, distillation, and prohibition • Right to govern village markets
  • It's tough to keep track of money loans.
  • Any other rights linked to Scheduled Tribes.


  • Issues Affecting PESA:
  • For their Scheduled Areas, state governments must enact state laws in conformity with this national statute. As a result, just a portion of the PESA was implemented.
  • The partial implementation has hurt self-governance in Adivasi areas such as Jharkhand.
  • Many analysts believe PESA failed to deliver because of a lack of clarity, legal faults, bureaucratic indifference, a lack of political will, resistance to change in the power structure, and
  • Several developmental initiatives were accepted on paper by Gram Sabha without any debate or decision-making, according to social audits conducted across the state.


  • Preliminary Exam Hot-Link:
  • Information on PESA.
  • The Characteristics of It.
  • Audits of social media



Tags : PRI, panchayati Raaj, Scheduled Areas

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