Dengue fever is a vector - borne subtropical illness caused by the dengue viruses (genus Flavivirus). It is spread by various mosquito species belonging to the genus Aedes, the most common of which being Aedes aegypti.
Chikungunya, yellow fever, and Zika are all transmitted by this insect.
The virus that causes dengue has four unique but closely related serotypes (distinct groupings within a genus of microorganisms that all have a common trait) (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3 and DEN-4).
Symptoms include a high fever that comes on suddenly, severe headaches, discomfort behind the eyes, and severe bone, joint, and muscular pain, among others.
Diagnosis and Treatment: A blood test is used to diagnose dengue infection.
There is no specific treatment for dengue fever.
Cases of Dengue Fever around the world:
Dengue fever has become far more common in recent decades around the world, with the vast majority of cases being unreported, as per the World Health Organization (WHO).
The World Health Organization estimates that 39 million people contract dengue fever each year, with 9.6 million showing symptoms.
According to the National Vector-Borne Disease Control Programme, India had over 1 lakh dengue cases in 2018 and over 1.5 lakh cases in 2019. (NVBDCP).
In India, the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP) is the central nodal agency for the prevention and control of six vector-borne diseases: Malaria, Dengue, Lymphatic Filariasis, Kala-azar, Japanese Encephalitis, and Chikungunya. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare oversees it.
Using Bacteria to Treat Dengue Fever:
Scientists from the World Mosquito Program recently used Wolbachia bacteria-infected mosquitos to successfully control dengue fever in Indonesia.
Method: The researchers infected some mosquitos with Wolbachia bacteria and then released them in the city, where they reproduced with local mosquitos until nearly all mosquitos in the area carried the infection. The Population Replacement Strategy is what it's called.
The researchers discovered that, after 27 months, the prevalence of dengue fever was 77 percent lower in locations where Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes had been released, compared to places where such deployments had not been made.
In 2019, the US Food and Drug Administration authorised the CYD-TDV or Dengvaxia dengue vaccine, making it the first dengue vaccine to receive regulatory approval in the US.
Dengvaxia is a live, attenuated dengue virus that must be given to children aged 9 to 16 who have had a previous dengue infection confirmed by a test and who reside in endemic areas.