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Current Affairs

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Current Affairs


Date : Nov 25, 2021

Description :



Topic à Health related issues


  • Tuberculosis Facts:


  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a member of the Mycobacteriaceae family of bacteria, which contains roughly 200 members.
  • Some Mycobacteria cause diseases including tuberculosis and leprosy in humans, while others infect a variety of animals.
  • Tuberculosis most commonly affects the lungs (pulmonary tuberculosis), but it can also affect other organs in people (extra-pulmonary TB).
  • Tuberculosis is an ancient disease with records dating back to 3000 BC in Egypt.
  • Tuberculosis is a treatable and curable disease.
  • Tuberculosis is transmitted from one person to another through the air. When people with lung TB cough, sneeze, or spit, they disseminate the TB germs into the air.
  • Active lung TB symptoms include sputum and blood in the cough, chest aches, weakness, weight loss, fever, and night sweats.


  • The Global Impact of Tuberculosis:


  • The 30 countries with the highest TB burden accounted for 87% of new TB infections in 2019.
  • Two-thirds of new TB cases were reported in India, Indonesia, China, the Philippines, Pakistan, Nigeria, Bangladesh, and South Africa.
  • India reported 1.8 million TB cases between January and December 2020, down from 2.4 million the previous year.
  • In 2019, MDR-TB remained a public health and security problem.
  • MDR-TB is a kind of tuberculosis that is resistant to the two most effective anti-TB drugs.
  • Extensively Drug-resistant tuberculosis is tuberculosis caused by microorganisms that are resistant to many of the most powerful anti-TB medications (XDR-TB).



  • Treatment for tuberculosis


  • Two Frenchmen, Albert Calmette and Camille Guerin, developed the BCG vaccine by modifying a Mycobacterium bovis strain (that causes TB in cattle). It was used in humans for the first time in 1921.
  • BCG was first used in India in 1948 on a modest scale, and it was included in the National Tuberculosis Control Program in 1962.
  • In addition to its primary use as a tuberculosis vaccine, it also protects infants against respiratory and bacterial infections, as well as other mycobacterial diseases like Leprosy and Buruli's ulcer.
  • It's also used to treat cancers of the urinary bladder and malignant melanoma with immunotherapy.
  • BCG has a fascinating property in that it works well in certain locations but not so well in others.
  • It has a high efficacy in the United Kingdom, Norway, Sweden, and Denmark, but little or no efficacy in countries near or on the equator, such as India, Kenya, and Malawi, where tuberculosis is more widespread.


  • International Efforts:


  • The World Health Organization (WHO) has launched "Find. Treat. All. #EndTB," a joint project with the Global Fund and the Stop TB Partnership.
  • The Global Tuberculosis Report is also published by the World Health Organization.


  • India's Initiatives:


  • TB Harega Desh Jeetega Campaign, Nikshay Ecosystem (National Tuberculosis Information System), Nikshay Poshan Yojana (NPY-financial Support), National Strategic Plan (NSP) for Tuberculosis Elimination (2017-2025).
  • Two tuberculosis vaccines, VPM (Vaccine Projekt Management) 1002 and MIP (Mycobacterium Indicus Pranii), are currently being tested in Phase 3 clinical trials.


  • Source à 25/11/21 à Page Number 3

Tags : WHO, EndTB

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