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Q 52- Discuss how India might contribute to the development of a multipolar and just international order by pursuing an independent foreign policy. (250 words)

  • Paper & Topic: GS II à International Relations:

 

  • Model Answer:

 

  • Introduction:

 

  • The process of organizing interactions between groupings of three or more states is known as multilateralism.
  • Multilateralism is often thought to include specific qualitative aspects or principles that determine the nature of the arrangement or institution, in addition to the basic numeric aspect.
  • The globe is in a state of upheaval.
  • The new world that emerges will be unlike anything we've ever seen before.
  • As a developing global power, India plays a significant role in the modern multipolar world, which gives India with certain unique prospects.

 

  • Body:

 

  • The global context is shifting:

 

  • China's influence and dynamics in its relations with the United States are deteriorating.
  • The rise of Asia as a worldwide economic powerhouse.
  • Global politics, the economy, scientific research, and society all require reinvention.
  • The Covid Pandemic has resulted in cross-domain, cross-cultural, and cross-national issues.
  • India should seize this opportunity to reclaim its position as a global thinking leader.
  • Several countries have taken use of existing international and national regulations to obtain an unfair edge over others.
  • For example, the World Trade Organization (WTO) is currently paralyzed due to a dispute between the developed and developing worlds.
  • New Power Asymmetries: Developed countries have complete control over the supply chain network.
  • China's influence in global economic governance is being bolstered through the Belt and Road Initiative.

 

 

  • The Impact of India's New Foreign Policy on the New World Order:

 

  • India may determine the global reaction in terms of multilateralism, not simply medical issues, as chair of the World Health Assembly's Executive Board.
  • In terms of multilateralism, how can India formulate a global response? Consider the following scenario: a once-in-a-lifetime alignment of the stars for agenda-setting.
  • The United Nations General Assembly will meet in September to address the theme "The Future We Want."
  • In 2021, India becomes a non-permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and chairs the BRICS Summit.
  • In 2022, it will also host the G-20 summit.

 

  • New international system principles:

 

  • At the Non-Aligned Movement's online conference.
  • In a more equal world, a new globalisation model based on humanism, fairness, and equality has widespread support, as for the first time since 1950, everyone is facing the same (virus) threat.
  • It should incorporate NAM-Plus in its foldNAM-Plus, which is popular in many regions of the world and brings both the BRICS and the G7 into the fold.
  • This new multilateralism should be based on outcomes rather than rules, with "security" being replaced by "similar levels of welfare" and a new P-5 not based on the G7.

 

  • Challenges:

 

  • Pakistan's inclusion as one of the key countries in China's Belt and Road Initiative poses a significant strategic challenge for India.
  • Because of India's tense relations with Pakistan, the Neighbourhood First policy has had limited success.
  • Because of China's geopolitical and economic influence in South Asia, it may exert political pressure on its allies.
  • As an example: South China Sea Disputes
  • Organizations like the Commonwealth and the Non-Aligned Movement are relevant and effective.
  • SAARC has also been impeded by strained relations between India and Pakistan, making it unable to function efficiently.
  • Protectionism in products and services is on the rise.
  • Terrorism and radicalization are a source of concern.

 

  • Measures that must be taken:

 

  • The new system should be founded on three principles:

 

  • Coexistence that is peaceful
  • First and foremost, the Asian Century must be defined in terms of peaceful coexistence, with post-colonial sovereignty frozen.
  • Non-interference in other countries' domestic affairs.
  • For sustainable development, build technological superiority in artificial intelligence (AI), cyber and space, agriculture, and knowledge-based economies.
  • Trade fundamentals have changed.
  • New trade principles focusing on equitable, sustainable, and inclusive growth are being developed.
  • Public health, agriculture research, renewable energy and batteries, and even AI, whose value is derived from shared data, should all be considered global public goods.

 

  • Values of civilisation:

 

  • Ancient civilisational ideals give the intellectual underpinnings for reshaping both the economic order and human behavior in order to achieve equitable and long-term growth.
  • For example, the Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam’ idea.

 

  • Steps to take:

 

  • India's participation in multilateral forums, the Neighbourhood First policy, and the marine domain are all areas where development should take place.
  • If India is to impact the world order, it must develop its own distinct perspective and look beyond China and Pakistan's confinement.
  • India must strengthen its strategic and commercial ties with all parties in order to meet its obligations on time.
  • The Quad, as it is in its early stages, requires more clarity in terms of its objectives.
  • By changing the Commonwealth, India can play a significant role.
  • All countries must respect the freedom of navigation and overflight, which must be governed by a rules-based system.
  • Willingness to fight terrorism in all of its forms and manifestations.
  • India's foreign policy must serve the twin objectives of domestic economic development and regional peace and stability.

 

  • Conclusion:
  • India should form a global triad in the post-truth era, which is defined by technology and trade rather than geography.
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