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Q 60- Do you agree that India falls short of social and distributive justice standards? And, if the trend is to be reversed, should restoring fairness to public discourse be the first priority? Discuss. (250 words)

Paper & Topic: GS II à Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.


  • Model Answer:


  • Introduction:


  • The distribution and allocation of common goods and burdens is the subject of distributive justice. Income, economic riches, political influence, taxation, job requirements, education, shelter, health care, military service, community involvement, and religious activities are all examples of advantages and burdens that affect many aspects of social life.


  • Body:


  • India is falling short of social and distributive justice standards:


  • Deep material, cultural, and knowledge-related inequities plague Indian society.
  • In Indian history, there are numerous examples of portions of this hierarchical paradigm being momentarily rejected - in the Buddha's early teachings, sections in Indian epics, Bhakti poetry, and protest groups like Veerashaivism, to name a few.
  • However, in recent years, this difficulty has become more substantial, explicit, and long-term. This is due to the widespread belief that everyone, regardless of caste, class, color, faith, or gender, is morally equal.
  • When it comes to resource or load sharing, hierarchical concepts of justice are given precedence over egalitarian justice.
  • The justice that is due to a person is determined by his or her position within a hierarchical structure, according to hierarchical principles.
  • The caste system in India, in which an individual's rank or hierarchy is decided at birth, is an example of this.
  • People must first strive for recognition as equals, for what can be considered basic social justice, in cultures where live hierarchies still exist.
  • Then, as the core of egalitarian distributive justice demands, they must decide how to distribute all societal rewards and burdens among equal persons.


  • The following are some of the steps that must be taken to restore justice to public discourse:


  • The need-based concept states that what is due to a person is what he or she truly requires. To put it another way, whatever is required for overall human well-being.
  • Because our basic needs are the same for everyone, fairness necessitates that they be met by everyone. Beyond this basic threshold, our wants are likely to vary, and hence justice necessitates the fulfillment of a variety of demands.
  • The desert concept states that a person is entitled to what he or she deserves based on their own merits and hard work.
  • This underscores the concept of equal opportunity for all, albeit with reasonable outcomes discrepancies.
  • Most acceptable egalitarian justice ideas attempt to strike a balance between need and desert.
  • They strive for a fair distribution of products and abilities (benefits) that meets everyone's needs, as well as a fair allocation of the societal responsibilities or sacrifices required to meet those demands.
  • Following that, individuals who deserve more as a result of innate ability, social learning, and personal work may be rewarded.
  • As a result, it's critical to consider where we stand on the various forms of egalitarian justice described in our Preamble.


  • Conclusion:


  • Articles 142 and 144, as well as the Fundamental Rights entrenched in Part III of the Constitution, create a just and fair society and secure distributive justice, as demonstrated even prior to the Constitution's establishment. Many of the decisions resulting from the Public Interest Litigation bolstered the concept of distributive justice.
  • The principles of equity, equality, and social need are most important in the context of distributive justice, but they can also be applied to a wide range of social justice issues.
  • All of these concepts are based on the idea that treating people fairly means giving them what they deserve.
  • It's not as if there's a single predetermined outcome that reflects them.
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