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Q 65- Do you agree that the Finance Commission in India serves as a lynchpin between the Centre and the States in numerous ways? Comment. (250 words)

Paper & Topic: GS III à Environmental Conservation related issues:


  • Model Answer:


  • Introduction:


  • Climate refugees, also known as climate migrants, are a subset of environmental migrants who were forced to flee "due to sudden or gradual changes in the natural environment related to at least one of three impacts of climate change: sea-level rise, extreme weather events, and drought and water scarcity."


  • Body:


  • Climate migrants are influenced by the following factors:


  • People are being forced to flee their homes and livelihoods due to climate stressors such as changing rainfall, frequent flooding, and sea level rise.
  • It renders their residences uninhabitable.
  • Adaptive capacities are poor in countries with susceptible geographies and fragile ecosystems.
  • Situations of war, political instability, low economic development, and human rights violations
  • Due to a lack of understanding of intra and inter migrants, there are no effective data for measuring climate migrants.


  • Climate Migrant Impacts:


  • Despite the fact that 52 low-lying vulnerable island nations support 62 million people and contribute less than 1% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, they are among the first to be affected by climate change.
  • Several small island nations have already been displaced as a result of rising sea levels.
  • Slow-onset environmental degradation processes such as inundation, desertification, soil erosion, and changing coastlines are more likely to cause migration than sudden-onset disasters such as storms and cyclones.


  • What is the reaction of the rich countries:


  • The international community has yet to recognize its role in facilitating such migration.
  • When approached in a similar manner, Australia refused to make any offers.
  • By 2080, the capital cost of sea level rise in the Caribbean Community is predicted to exceed $187 billion.
  • Over a 30-year period beginning in 2012, the World Bank's Pacific Possible initiative estimates that the cost of adaptation for the Marshall Islands will be $18,500 per person and $11,000 for the Solomon Islands.
  • Legal experts are suggesting the creation of an international compensation commission that would address the island states' adaptation costs through an international fund.


  • Solutions to Consider:


  • GHG emissions are expected to increase by 50% by 2050 if current policies are followed.
  • Any reduction in GHG emissions will not prevent the islands from sinking, but a major reduction in emissions will postpone the islands becoming uninhabitable, deferring the burden of accommodating mass migration.
  • These are broad solutions that the sinking island nations urgently require, but they are far from comprehensive.
  • Coastal preservation, population consolidation, rainfall collecting and storage, alternate techniques of growing fruits and vegetables, human resource development, and study and observation are among the many different cures that are needed.


  • Next Steps:


  • Re-energize political pressure and worldwide negotiations to get an agreement on a forum to deal with the problem.
  • The forum must allow for negotiations on migrant legal status and the development of adaptive mechanisms in the destination country to ensure and defend the dignity and cultural identity of those who have been displaced in that country.
  • Countries are obligated to contribute financial support to combat global warming under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (1992).
  • By expanding current commitments, the forum may secure compensation for island nations in the form of payments from party countries by administering a fund set up for this purpose.
  • A tribunal would be established by the Forum to review each island nation's case and determine whether international assistance is required.
  • The tribunal could then take necessary steps, such as multilateral negotiations or migratory directives, compensation, and other remedies, to save the people of the sinking small island nations.


  • Conclusion:


  • Climate refugees are now a complicated process including numerous economic and socio-political considerations, rather than a simple flow of individuals from low-income countries to high-income countries.
  • As the effects of climate change become more widespread over the world, the pressure on human populations to relocate away from the worst-affected areas will grow.
  • Studies like this one will help us better understand and predict where such migration may occur in the future.
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