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Q7- What is Precision Farming? List the advantages and disadvantages of precision farming in the Indian agricultural system. (250 words)

Paper & Topic: GS III à Major crops cropping patterns in various parts of the country, different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers

 

  • Model Answer:

 

  • Introduction:

 

  • Precision agriculture (PA) is a type of farm management that employs information technology to ensure that crops and soil get exactly what they need to thrive and produce at their best.
  • PA's mission is to assure profitability, long-term viability, and environmental protection.

 

  • Satellite agriculture, as-needed farming, and site-specific crop management are all terms used to describe

 

  • Body:

 

  • About Precision Farming:

 

  • It is a modern agriculture practise that involves the use of technology in agriculture to improve production and profitability, such as remote sensing, GPS, and Geographical Information System (GIS).
  • It allows farmers to make better use of crop inputs such as herbicides, fertilisers, tillage, and irrigation water.
  • More efficient input use will result in increased agricultural output and quality without harming the environment, resulting in sustainable agriculture and development.
  • As a result, precision agriculture is about doing the right thing at the right time, in the right place.

 

  • Precision farming's benefits:

 

  • It will boost agricultural productivity and avoid soil degradation in arable land, allowing for long-term agricultural development.
  • It will cut down on the use of excessive chemicals in crop production.
  • Precision farming will maximise the efficient use of water resources.
  • GPS makes it simple to survey agricultural lands
  • It is also possible to map yield and soil properties.
  • Dissemination of information about agricultural techniques in order to increase the quality, quantity, and cost of agricultural crop production.
  • By optimising agro-chemical products, it will reduce the danger to the environment, notably in terms of nitrate leaching and groundwater contamination.
  • Non-uniform fields can be divided into smaller plots according to their specific needs.
  • It allows for better resource management and, as a result, reduces resource waste.

 

  • Precision farming's drawbacks:

 

  • High capital expenses may deter farmers from adopting this farming practise.
  • Precision agriculture techniques are still in the early stages of development, necessitating expert advice prior to deployment.
  • The actual collection of sufficient data to fully implement the system could take several years.
  • The task is incredibly challenging, particularly the data collecting and processing.

 

  • What are the advantages of precision farming for India:

 

  • In India, fine-tuning and expanding the use of precision agriculture technologies can help reduce production costs, boost productivity, and make better use of natural resources.
  • It has the potential to transform Indian farm management by increasing profitability, productivity, sustainability, crop quality, environmental protection, on-farm quality of life, food safety, and rural economic growth.
  • Site-specific irrigation in wheat fields in Punjab and Haryana, insecticides in cotton fields, and fertiliser treatments in oil palm plantations in South India, as well as coffee and tea gardens in eastern India, can significantly cut production costs while simultaneously reducing chemical pollution.
  • When water supplies are limited, it might boost irrigation efficiency.
  • Farmers can forecast and prevent issues such as water stress, nutrient deficit, and pests/diseases by using predictive analytics.
  • It also expands chances for professional employment in agriculture and introduces new instruments for assessing multifunctional features, such as non-market activities.
  • It plays an important function in monitoring greenhouse conditions in agricultural fields.

 

  • In India, there are obstacles to precision farming adoption:

 

  • Due to its unique pattern of land holdings, limited infrastructure, and lack of farmer willingness to take risks, as well as social and economic factors and demographic variables, precision farming adoption in India is still in its infancy.
  • In most Indian agriculture, the small amount of landholdings restricts the economic gains from currently available precision farming technology.

 

  • Conclusion:

 

  • Rapid socioeconomic developments in India, such as economic growth, urbanisation, and energy consumption, are opening up new possibilities for precision farming.
  • Rather than indiscriminately adopting modern Precision Agriculture technology like wealthy countries have done, India could adopt innovations based on the country's socioeconomic needs.

 

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