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Test Paper

Q 72- Explain the relevance of India's efforts to shape the strategic and military dynamics of the Indian Ocean region while discussing the strategic significance of Indian Ocean islands and the challenges they face. (250 words)

  • Paper & Topic: GS II à Human Resource Development (HRDs) role in Developmental Prospects of India


  • Model Answer:


  • Introduction:


  • The term "soft infrastructure" refers to all of the institutions that contribute to a thriving economy.
  • These usually necessitate a large amount of human capital and are geared at providing services to the general public.
  • All educational, health, financial, law and order, governmental systems (such as social security), and other institutions that are regarded critical to an economy's well-being are termed soft infrastructure.
  • Soft infrastructure is critical for India's development.
  • Soft infrastructure, including software, serves as the foundation for hard infrastructure to function and grow.
  • Without effective governance, the rule of law, and pro-business policies, building bridges, highways, airports, and power plants will not be enough to promote development.
  • Soft infrastructure is critical to the success of these undertakings.
  • As a result, India must invest in critical components of soft infrastructure such as rule of law and effective tax regimes, as well as promote private-sector competition and public-private partnerships, in order to establish a healthy, functioning, and constantly increasing economy.


  • Body:


  • The foundations of'soft' infrastructure in India are strengthening: excellent governance, effective tax regimes, private sector competition, Public-Private Partnership, and foreign investment inflows.
  • India has a strategic location in relation to important markets (East Asia, Central Asia, WANA, Russia, and Europe), a young and growing population, significant human capital, a wealth of natural resources, and enjoys relative peace and stability.
  • India's long-term success will be determined by their willingness and ability to provide leadership and embrace and implement necessary reforms.


  • India's soft infrastructure changes so far:


  • Over the last three decades, governments have implemented reforms in direct taxation, telecommunications, labour, banking, and capital markets; expanded infrastructure (roads, airports, and ports); increased foreign ownership limits in controlled sectors; attempted privatisation of state-owned enterprises; and conceptualised and implemented Aadhaar.
  • The Goods and Services Tax, the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, agricultural reforms, and sanitation and hygiene are some of the current notable measures.
  • The JAM trinity, which has weeded out inefficiencies and corruption to allow the genuine beneficiaries receive the benefits of public service delivery.


  • Policy changes to ensure that all people have equal access to digital technologies:


  • Address the issue of digital segregation:


  • The government must provide all Indians with a "smart device for life," complete with sufficient bandwidth and data.
  • A passport to equal opportunity with connection, akin to a little iPad, offering access to education, health, training, upskilling, and financial inclusion.
  • The initial condition for aatmanirbharta is this.
  • Ensure that all students have equitable access to education.
  • In the midst of the pandemic, virtual schooling has proven the prospect of a much more equitable future for our children.
  • The weapon should be the use of digital in education via the smart small device, and all public schools should be taught by the same teachers (by language), with present teachers serving as class monitors to ensure good attendance and behaviour.
  • Transform health-care delivery.
  • Access to health centres should be provided by the same device.
  • In India, all health records must be digitised and stored centrally.
  • We can solve privacy concerns and transform India's health-care delivery system from "impersonal" to "personalised."


  • Conserve water:
  • India is both a victim and a culprit when it comes to environmental management.
  • However, mispricing (or giving away) power and water has resulted in agricultural perversions and a dangerously low water table.


  • Improve justice:
  • Exporting water-guzzling rice and sugar is akin to exporting food during a famine.
  • At its most basic level, this means that our courts must work more quickly, and jails should imprison criminals rather than people awaiting trial.
  • It is unjust that 60 percent of jail detainees are awaiting trial.





  • Conclusion:


  • India will be far better prepared to attract investment and achieve growth and integration into the global economy if it chooses to invest in soft infrastructure development, such as improving governance, strengthening the rule of law, increasing transparency, developing legislative and regulatory institutions, and levelling the playing field for market competition.
  • India must fully adopt technology in the next phase to make it future-ready and provide equitable opportunity to its inhabitants.
  • Soft infrastructure can thus assist India in shifting its economy toward consumption, services, and environmentally friendly growth while also coping with the challenges of an ever-changing globe.
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