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Q 87- The lauded Medical Termination of Pregnancy (Amendment) Bill of 2021 ignores women's bodily autonomy and oozes of ableism. Examine the issue critically. (250 words)

  • Paper & Topic: GS I à Indian Society


  • Model Answer:


  • Introduction:
  • India is a sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic, and republican country that operates under the Westminster model of government (also known as Cabinet government or Responsible government).
  • This system of administration is popular in countries such as the United Kingdom, Japan, Canada, and India.
  • The United Kingdom's parliamentary system was adopted because the United Kingdom's constitution is the mother constitution of parliamentarianism.


  • Body:


  • Characteristics of the parliamentary form of governance:


  • Bicameral legislature: A bicameral legislature (two houses of parliament) or a unicameral legislature (one house of parliament) can exist (single house of the parliament). Members of the Lower House (Lok sabha) and the Upper House (Rajya sabha) are elected by the people, while members of the Upper House (Rajya sabha) are elected by elected representatives.
  • On the Prime Minister's recommendation, the President can dissolve the Lok Sabha, whereas the Rajya Sabha is a permanent house that cannot be dissolved.
  • Nominal and Real Executives: In India, the executive is divided into two categories: nominal and real. The nominal executive is the President, who is also the Head of State.
  • The President of India is vested with all executive functions under the Indian Constitution.
  • However, the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers employ them in practice.
  • The true executive is the Prime Minister.
  • Majority Party Rule: The government is formed by the party that obtains the majority of seats in the Lower House elections.
  • The President appoints the leader as Prime Minister, as well as the other ministries, on the Prime Minister's suggestion.
  • In the event that no single party receives a clear majority, the President may invite a coalition of parties to form a government.
  • The council of ministers has a joint responsibility to the parliament.
  • The lower chamber of parliament has the power to dissolve the government through a no-confidence resolution.
  • Opposition: An opposition party is formed when a party receives the second most votes in an election. The opposition is critical in keeping the prevailing administration in check.
  • Confidentiality: In official legal concerns of the government, officials of the executive observe the principle of secrecy.
  • Before taking office, ministers swear an oath of secrecy.


  • The benefits of parliamentary government:


  • Better administration-legislation coordination: Because the administration is a component of the legislation, and most legislatures support the government, it is easier to adopt and implement laws.
  • There is no authoritarianism because the executive branch is accountable to the legislative and can be impeached through motions of no confidence.
  • Furthermore, unlike a presidential administration, authority will not be centralized in the hands of a single person.
  • Decision-making that is both participatory and inclusive.
  • Ministers who are responsible to Parliament are held accountable for their activities. Time for questions, debates, adjournment motions, and motions of no confidence are some of the tools available.
  • If you lose majority support, be ready to replace the government. "The deputy prime minister is the leader of the opposition party," Jennings says.


  • Different groups are represented:
  • The parliament in this system gives representation for various groups in the country. This is especially critical for developing countries such as India.
  • Flexibility: Because the PM may be readily altered as needed, the system is versatile. Winston Churchill succeeded Neville Chamberlain as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during World War II. This differs from the presidential system, in which the president can only be removed after the end of his or her term or if impeachment occurs.
  • The following are some of the reasons why India should switch to a parliamentary government:


  • India had some experience with the parliamentary system under the Government of India Acts of 1919 and 1935 by the time the constitution was drafted. As a result, it was well-known among Indians.
  • This incident also demonstrated that people's representatives can effectively control executives.
  • The constitution's authors wanted the government to be accountable to the people and to be responsive to their demands.
  • The creators were hesitant to use the presidential system since it provides the president too much power and allows him to act independently with the legislature.
  • The presidential system is equally prone to the president's personality cult.
  • The framers of the constitution desired a powerful executive branch, but one that was also protected from becoming a personality cult.
  • There are numerous procedures in the parliamentary system to make the executive more accountable to and controlled by the people's representatives.
  • As a result, India's constitution established a parliamentary system.


  • Conclusion:


  • Parliament is an important part of our democracy since it is the representative body that checks the government's actions.
  • Parliament must function effectively in order to fulfill its constitutional mandate.
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